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EVALUATING THE CONTRIBUTION OF SIERRA LEONE OPPORTUNITY INDUSTRIALISATION CENTER TECHNICAL VOCATIONAL INSTITUTE ON YOUTH DEVELOPMENT IN BOMBALI DISTRICT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EVALUATING THE CONTRIBUTION OF SIERRA LEONE OPPORTUNITY INDUSTRIALISATION CENTER TECHNICAL VOCATIONAL INSTITUTE ON YOUTH DEVELOPMENT IN BOMBALI DISTRICT

 

 

PAUL ABU KARGBO (ID: 1392

 

 

A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF POSTGRADUATE STUDIES, FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT FOR THE AWARD OF MASTER’S DEGREE IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

UNIVERSITY OF MAKENI (UniMak)

 

2019

 

 

DECLARATION

I declare that this work was done by me under the supervision of Dr. Salifu Salito Samura. References and works of other authors used in this dissertation have been duely acknowledged.

 

 

…………………………… ……………………………

Supervisor Paul Abu Kargbo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DEDICATION

This work is dedicated to my family, all the marginalized, vulnerable children, youth and women of the world, development workers around the world particularly those in Africa, as they too make their invaluable contribution for sustainable development of the continent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to God Almighty for providing me the resources, giving me the strength and protection throughout my course. Thanks to my supervisor, Dr. Salifu Salito Samura, whose constructive criticisms led to clarification of facts for a quality write-up. Many thanks to Professor Bob Karankay Conteh for his motivation, guidance and insightful lectures throughout this difficult task. To Dr. Susan Cutter (Associate Professor), I want to say thanks for preparing me in academic writing. My gratitude to Rev. Fr. Prof. Joseph Alimamy Turay, Vice Chancellor, whose in-depth knowledge and perspectives in social issues strengthened my understanding of the subject matter.

Thank Mr. Musa Sesay for his support in proof reading my write up to identify grammatical and syntax errors. To my colleagues Sustainable Development 2019 cohort, I cannot thank you enough for being such a magnificent and supportive group. I would like to thank Captain Joseph F.S. Kaitibie, Patrick A. Kanneh and Jonathan Bambara for their moral support. My greatest appreciation goes to my parents, Mr. John T. Kargbo and Mrs. Mary Kargbo who toiled relentlessly under the rain and sun to provide me the level of education they were not privileged to have. Thanks to my siblings, Joseph, John, Sarah, Peter, and Isaac for having them around me during my study. Also, thanks go to Mr. Sheka R. Bangura for his technical assistant in the course of this research.

Finally, I am greatly indebted to my wife, Isata, my children Mary, Benjamin and Israel for your encouragement, motivation and happiness throughout my master’s program.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

1. Table 1: Gender of sampled youths………………………………………………….23

2. Table 2: Youth previous activities before enrolment to SLOIC……………………24

3. Table 3: What is your educational Status before joining SLOIC? (Currently

enrolled and graduated youth)……………………………………………………………26

4. Table 4: Why do you decide to enroll for a course at SLOIC………………………27

5. Table 5: What course/skill are you enrolled in?......................................................29

6. Table 6: Why did you decide to enroll for a course at SLOIC? (Graduated youth)………………………………………………………………………………………..30

7. Table 7: Is your current job/ self-employed directly related to what you

studied at SLOIC?......................................................................................................31

8. Table 8: Do you think you are now self-reliant as a result of the education you

received at SLOIC? (Graduated Youth)…………………...…………………………….32

9. Table 9: How beneficial are these skills to you (Graduated youth)…………….......................................................................................................33

10. Table 10: With Technical and Vocational Education Issues like skills,

self-employment and self-reliance on part of the student will be enhanced……...…35

11. Table11: How much do you earn monthly? (Graduated Youth)………………….36

12. Table 12: What do you think should be done to improve the technical and vocational educational system in Makeni………………………………………………..38

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

1. Figure 1: Youth activities before joining SLOIC……………………………………...25

2. Figure 2: Education level of currently enrolled and graduated youth……………...27

3. Figure 3: Reasons for enrolling at SLOIC……………………………………………30

4. Figure 4: Youth Skills and Self-reliance………………..…………………………….32

5. Figure 5: Benefits of skills training to the graduated youth…………………………34

6. Figure 6: With Technical and Vocational Education Issues such as skills,

self-employment, and self-reliance will be enhanced………………………………….36

7. Figure 7: Graduated youth’s monthly income………………………………………..37

9. Figure 8: Major challenges faced by youth at SLOIC……………………………….37

 

 

 

 

 

Declaration…………………………………...………………………………………………ii

Dedication……………………………………………………………………………………iii

Acknowledgment……………………………………………………………………………iv

Lists of tables………………………………………………………………………………..vi

List of figures…………………………………………………………...…………………...vii

Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………....xi

 

CHAPTER 1: INTTRODUCTION

Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………..1

Background…………………………………………………………………………………..3

Problem Statement………………………………………………………………………….8

Purpose of the Study………………………………………………………………………11

Aim of The Study…………………………………………………………………………..12

Objectives…………………………………………………………………………………..12

Research Question (s)…………………………………………………………………….12

Nature of the Study………………………………………………………………………...12

Definitions………………………………………………………………………………..…14

Assumptions………………………………………………………………………………..15

Scope and Delimitations…………………………………………………………………..15

Limitations…………………………………………………………………………………..16

Significance of the Study………………………………………………………………….17

Summary……………………………………………………………………………………18

 

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………20

Literature Search Strategy………………………………………………………………..20

Literature Review Related to Key Variables…………………………………………….20

Technical and Vocational Education and Youth Skills Development………………...20

Technical Vocational Education and Self-Employment for Youth…………………….21

Technical Vocational Education and Crime Rate among Youth………………………25

Technical Vocational Education and Substance Abuse…………………………….....27

Summary……………………………………………………………………………………28

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Introduction………………………………………………………………………………..30

Research Design and Rationale………………………………………………………..30

Population…………………………………………………………………………………31

Procedure for Recruitment Participation and Data Collection………………………...32

Data Analysis Plan…………………………………………………………………….......33

Ethical Consideration………………………………………….......................................34

Summary……………………………………………………………….............................35

CHAPTER 4: DATA INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS

Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………37

Data collection……………………………………………………………………………...37

Youth previous activities before enrolment to SLOIC………………………………….38

Skills Development and Self-employment………………………………………………42

Crime Rate and Substance Abuse Reduction………………………………………….45

Improving Technical and Vocation education in Makeni………………………………56

Result……………………………………………………………………………………….57

Summary…………………………………………………………………………………....58

 

 

CHAPTER 5: INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………59

Interpretation of the Findings……………………………………………………………..59

Technical Vocational Education and Skills Development……………………………..60

Technical Vocational Education and Self-Employment for Youth…………………….61

Technical Vocational Education and Crime Rate among Youth………………………64

Technical Vocational Education and Substance Abuse……………………………….65

Limitations of the Study……………………………………………………………………65

Recommendations…………………………………………………………………………66

Implications…………………………………………………………………………………69

Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………78

References…………………………………………………………………………………80

Appendixes………………………………………………………………………………...85

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of Sierra Leone Opportunity Industrialization Centre (SLOIC) Makeni. Its strategic objective is to provide a demand-led qualification that meets regional and international standards for employment. There is inadequate information on the contribution of technical and vocational education on youth development in terms of skills development, self-reliance, self-employment, crime rate reduction and mitigating substance abuse. The study was carried out using the survey research method. The design seeks to provide descriptive investigation. It involved participation of sixty (60) youth age between 15-35 including those who are presently enrolled in their final year at SLOIC and those who have graduated.

They were purposively chosen according to the courses they are enrolled in at SLOIC. The gender composition for this study is 35 male which is 58.3% and 25 female who make up 41.7% of the population studied. The findings revealed that, even though there are challenges concerning the inadequate supply of equipment, yet there is a positive impact of technical and vocational education on the development of youth in Makeni. A total of 70% of the youth population (both graduated and presently enrolled) studied, strongly agreed to the statement that technical and vocational education enhanced their skills development, self-employment, crime rate reduction, and mitigated substance abuse among youth. Only about 5% of the currently enrolled youth disagreed to the statement above. It is noteworthy therefore, 86.6% of the youth surveyed believed that technical and vocational education will undoubtedly enhance skills, self-employment as they relate to them. The existing gap in the literature of this study is that studies that focus on youth development through technical and vocational education in the context of Sierra Leone and some developing countries in Africa are deficient. The study fills this gap by providing empirical confirmation to authenticate the fact that indeed technical and vocational education has a role to play in youth development in the country. It recommends that government, Civil Society Organizations the Private Sector should invest in entrepreneurship development in technical vocational education. Technical vocational institutions should be adequately funded for proper development of the individuals to become self-reliant and contribute to national development.

 

Chapter 1: Introduction

Introduction

This chapter discusses background of the study, problem statement, purpose of the study, aim of the study, objectives, research questions, nature of the study, definition of terms, assumption, scope and delimitation, significant of the study, and summary. The study evaluates the contribution of Sierra Leone Opportunity Industrialisation Center Technical Vocational Institute Makeni Bombali District on youth development. Many researchers in technical and vocational education have supported the need for this type of education in developing countries. Technical vocational education plays a vital role in the empowerment of youth by making them responsible citizens (Prentice, 2012). To actualised the development of young people, the curricula of technical and vocational institutions must be tailored to reflect the needed skills for sustainable employment (Scot, 2013). The constant empowerment of youth through technical and vocational education will result in responsiveness towards national development, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. While on the contrary, the poor state of technical and vocational education in most African countries has led many youths to resorts to crimes ranging from pick-pocketing to armed robbery (Scot, 2012).

 

Youth serve as valuable assets to the socio-economic development of countries, especially developing countries (UNDP, 2010). This study anchored on Goal 4 of the Sustainable Development Goals which stated that by 2030 (globally) nations should; Ensure Inclusive and Equitable Quality Education and Promote Lifelong Learning Opportunities for All. With specific reference to target 4.4 of the (SDGs). It is envisaged that by 2030, there should be an increase in youth and adults with important skills, such as technical and vocational skills, to enhance their employment opportunities, with decent jobs and entrepreneurship (UNDP, 2015). Therefore, the research is evaluating the contribution of technical vocational education on youth development. Technical vocational education is the right approach that provides the trained and skilled workforce needed by African countries to create wealth and move out of poverty.

Also, to create gainful employment, technical vocational education has the potential to provide varied skills required by groups from different socio-economic and educational backgrounds (Pongo et al., 2014). According to Pongo et al., (2014), technical vocational education help youth and the poor who are vulnerable in society. With advancement in technology, culture and economy, young people are required to develop skills, attitudes and knowledge to thrive in the changing global environment. Also, to accelerate social and economic development, countries need a thoroughly trained committed workforce, and this can be achieved through technical vocational education. In Ghana, Pongo et al. (2014), found out that the government’s goal is to develop young people human resources to reduce poverty. The strategy employed by the Ghanaian government was the establishment of community based-vocational centres all over the country. Consequently, this has not been able to mitigate unemployment and rural-urban migration.

 

Furthermore, in Africa, technical vocational education can be categorised into three sectors. The public technical vocational institutions established by the government. The private vocational training institutions created by groups of people with common interest or individuals. The traditional apprenticeship. The different sectors of technical vocational education stated above do not have any general principles to guide the implementation of their intervention. A lot of privately established institutions certify their trainees with certificates that do not meet national standards. Because of the lack of proper coordination of technical vocational education in Africa, this has resulted to enormous challenges regarding training quality. The compatibility of certificates has serious implication on the worthiness of the image of technical vocational education (AU, 2007).

Background of the Study

It is essential to have relevant data to inform us what has been the situation and what is the current status of technical vocational education in Sierra Leone. The data will help in the design of sound and sustainable technical vocational education policy. Technical vocational education is fundamental in the enhancement of new opportunities and livelihoods for communities (Kingombe, 2012). Policies that have to do with vocational education should be designed through research outcome. They can be vital in evaluating the effectiveness of the policy. Conversely, the formulation and putting of long-term development policy to practice with no substantial data can result in unwanted negative measures (EU, 2011).

 

Also, the institutional actions, national legislation and practice are inadequately consistent to coordinate vocational educational training activities and research in a way that benefits policy making (UNDP, 2010). The EU (2011), further states that, vocational educational training has economic and social benefits. Economically, vocational educational training result in economic growth, labour market outcome, firms’ performance, employees’ productivity, employment opportunity, earnings and professional status/career development. Socially, the benefits include crime rate reduction, social cohesion, health, intergeneration benefits, the inclusion of disadvantaged groups and individual motivation.

 

The skill mismatch has continued to grow with globalisation and as many countries transition to a more service-oriented economy (UNDP, 2009). Business owners are finding that regardless of their level of education, most new employees lack communication and client-relations skills; organisational and prioritisation skills such as time-management, flexibility and adaptability. Entry-level employees in many emerging markets may be technically overqualified, but lack teamwork and interpersonal skills, making collaboration with colleagues and problem-solving between team members difficult (UNDP, 2009). These challenges are particularly significant in light of the "youth bulge” a peak number of young people aged 15-35 projected in the next several decades in almost all developing countries.

 

There is growing evidence that “both cognitive and non-cognitive abilities determine social and economic success” for young people and adults (Malcolm et al. 2009). As a result, comprehensive training programs at technical and vocational institutions that combine in-class employability and life skills lessons with the hands-on task is necessary. Putting the theory to practice are needed. This approach has the potential for obtaining employment and higher earnings. According to (UNDP, 2010), technical and vocational life skills programs targeting youth in low and middle-income countries have resulted to increased economic opportunities for youth while at the same time life skills programs have proven to expand young people earning.

 

In Nigeria, vocational and technical education has not been given the required attention, which resulted in a high rate of unemployment among the youth to engage in productive activities (Amedu, 2013). On the contrary, the automobile industry in Malaysia is one benefit of investment in technical vocational training, because it has the backing and support of Government Policies (Adewale, O.S., Gany, H.I., Sidek, H.M., 2014). Adewale et al. (2014), stated that, in Malaysia, technical and vocational training tailored with goals, contents, practice, relevance and job orientation had placed the country on the right trajectory towards achieving its national and international growth and development by 2020.

 

According to Alhasan, Usman & Tyabo (2013), technical and vocational education is education designed to equip learners for gainful employment, provides the skills, the knowledge required for the job. Further emphasis was laid by Alhasan, Usman & Tyabo (2013), that the outcome of an effective technical and vocational education is political supremacy of a nation over another, economic prosperity and self-sustenance. The lack of interest in technical and vocational education is a considerable challenge to national development (Gabriel, 2014). Not everyone needs a university education. In Sierra Leone, technical and vocational qualification is considered inferior to regular education degrees. In developed countries, those with technical and vocational degrees are highly regarded (Gabriel, 2014). The relevance of every worker depends on the skills and knowledge and not on the stack of academic degrees the worker has acquired over the years.

 

Sierra Leone must learn to combined theory and practice in its educational system. The reason is that theories alone cannot serve any vital purpose in today's crises ridden global economy (Gabriel, 2014). To improve the economy is to empower the people to tackle the developmental challenges facing the nation through technical and vocational education. The institutions of higher learning should push for increased funding for technical and vocational education.

No nation will make any meaningful socio-economic stride without a well-equipped technical and vocational institutions (UNDP, 2010). According to UNESCO (2011), uplifting technical vocational education is one approach to increase economic growth and employment opportunities for the youth in this present generation. Because of inadequate training and funding, technical and vocational institutions are suffering from low productivity in Sierra Leone. For a country to develop, it depends on the richness of its citizens and better productivity which results in a nation's advantage of economies of scale and reduces the costs of production and prices of goods and services (UNESCO, 2011).

 

Sierra Leone should consider investment in technical and vocational education seriously. A country that has poorly educated and unskilled workforce cannot compete adequately in the global market. Today, the leading factors of production in the emerging economy are said to be technology, knowledge, creativity and innovation (Gabriel, 2014). Youth who choose technical vocational training as an alternative to university education are seen as not very intelligent (GoSL, 2012). Also, technical vocational education is held in low esteem, and the institutions faced with the challenges of old equipment and absent of strategic direction (UNDP, 2011).

However, trained youths in technical vocational education skills must be provided with high employment opportunities. On the contrary, technical vocational education in Sierra Leone has not been able to provide the required skilled people to fill the job market and meet employers’ requirement to improve productivity (GoSL, 2012). Technical vocational education was introduced in 1993 under the education system the 6-3-3-4 in Sierra Leone. It was viewed as education for the dropouts, especially those who are unable to pass the national exams at primary and senior secondary school levels (GoSL, 2012). There has been neglect in human and material investment, low salaries, and poor quality of infrastructure in the technical and vocational education in the country by the government (UNDP, 2011).

 

Furthermore, there is an increase in the establishment of unrecognised technical vocational skills training centres in the country in response to the empowerment of youth to be productive citizens. Despite the effort by institutions, yet they have not been able to meet the high-quality skills needed by the labour market (GoSL, 2012). Also, technical and vocational education has not been able to meet the skills required in employment sectors like physical infrastructure, road building, and mining. There is also the absence of loan schemes for technical vocational education for youth development (GoSL, 2012). Studies that focused on youth development through technical and vocational education in the context of Sierra Leone and some developing countries in Africa are deficient.

 

According to A.U (2007) technical vocational education in Africa is faced with fragmented structures, unregulated, supply-driven. There is mismatch between supply and demand for skills, low prestige and attractiveness, gender-based inequality of opportunity, geographic and economic disparities. In addition, the sector has low quality and ineffective training, insufficient funding and weak policy implementation structures. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how technical vocational education contribute to youth development in Bombali district. The study outcome is intended to influence Government decision in terms of policy design for youth empowerment and warrant commitment to invest in technical vocational education. In this study, the relevance of technical and vocational education for economic and social development of youth is identified.

 

It will encourage the design of better policy and institutionalising technical vocational education into general education in Sierra Leone. Technical Vocational Education is crucial in national development. Technical Vocational Education has been integrated into most African governments Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers. The outcome of this type of educational system drives towards the world of work and the development of employable skills. This study is relevant as it provides appropriate information and authenticates the fact that technical and vocational education has a role to play in youth development in the country.

 

Problem Statement

There is 1.7 million youth in Sierra Leone with an unemployment rate of 60 percent. Majority of these youth cannot provide for themselves and their families. Both the basic and tertiary education systems of the country are not meeting the needs of young people. There is 37% young people of school going age in education system while the majority cannot read and write. Consequently, the bad situation in which the youth find themselves has pose enormous challenges on social protection systems, such demand for services as well as the opportunity cost of lost economic production and income creation is also a critical issue in the country. The worsening situation of youth has placed them negatively within the social and political life of the country. In order to create sustainable employment opportunities, there is need for robust policy restructuring, political willpower, and realistic action plans in place. Youth have constantly faced the challenges of accessing formal and technical vocational education. The situation has worsened divergence in academic certification and labour market demands. Persistent youth marginalisation, have resulted to inimical behaviours such as drugs abuse and committing crime in communities they find themselves (GoSL, 2014).

Furthermore, technical vocational education was introduced in Sierra Leone in 1993 under the 6-3-3-4 education system. Technical vocational education was introduced in the education system to provide a demand-led qualification that meet employment prospects in Sierra Leone. However, the sector lacks proper coordination with a curriculum that is not compatible with labour requirement, (GoSL, 2011). In Sierra Leone, from a political point of view, technical and vocational education has not been considered as a priority that will contribute to national development. There is weak political will in terms of providing the sector a robust national working policy.

The technical vocational education sector is also faced with the issue of low budgetary allocation and poor collaborations among Ministries Departments and Agencies (MDAs) dealing with its activities. Economically, access to finance to start a business by most graduate from technical vocational institutions is weak with high percentage of interest rate from financial institutions. This prevent them from accessing loan to engage in self entrepreneurship ventures. There is poor value addition into the production of goods & services or sometimes no value addition at all among other products produced by technical vocational institutions graduates. The absent of marketing strategy for their products make things worse for the sector. Processing natural resources into finished goods is another problem facing technical vocational institutions in Sierra Leone due to lack of advanced technology.

 

Socially, there is inadequate employment opportunities for technical vocational professionals. In addition, the negative perceptions among parents, students, and the general public, as drop out sector is a factor affecting the development of technical vocational education in the country. The enabling environment is not available and there is a mismatch in career direction. In terms of technology, there is non-existence of advanced technology in Sierra Leone’s technical vocational institutions and the result is low productivity among students. The sector has been grossly underfunded, low and inadequate skilled personnel, little or no research on technical issues, and inadequate attention to innovations. Also, inadequate infrastructure is another problem faced with technical vocational education in Sierra Leone. Government and its development partners had never paid attention towards the construction of technical vocational institutions as compared to formal education structures all over the country. Therefore, the said few existing ones are still either unused or under used. The existing structures are lacking equipment nationwide. No provision for the sustainability of the existing structures. Inequitable distribution of structures and there is disparity in support for structural development in the country (Giama, 2019).

 

The main problem that motivated this study is that, studies that focus on youth development through technical and vocational education in the context of Sierra Leone are deficient. There is inadequate information on the contribution of technical and vocational education on youth development in terms of skills development, self-employment, crime rate reduction and how it contributes to mitigating substance abuse among youth. The study filled this gap by providing empirical confirmation to endorse the fact that technical and vocational education contributes to youth development in Bombali district and Sierra Leone in general.

 

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this survey method was to evaluate the contribution of Sierra Leone Opportunity and Industrial Center on youth development in Bombali district, because of inadequate data to justify that technical vocational education result to skills development, self-employment, crime rate reduction and substance abuse mitigation among youth. A descriptive survey was used to assess how Sierra Leone Opportunity and Industrial Center contribute to skills development for youth, to investigate how Sierra Leone Opportunity and Industrial Center, create self-employment for youth, to determine the relationship between Sierra Leone Opportunity and Industrial Center and crime rate reduction among youth,

and explore the association between Sierra Leone Opportunity and Industrial Center and substance abuse.

This study brings out the relevance of technical vocational education on youth development in Bombali district. Sierra Leone Opportunity and Industrialisation Centre (SLOIC).

The aim of The Study

The study aims to evaluate how Sierra Leone Opportunity Industrialisation Center Technical Vocational Institute contributes to youth development in Bombali district.

Objectives

To assess how Sierra Leone Opportunity Industrialisation Center Technical Vocational Institute leads to skills development for youth,

To investigate how Sierra Leone Opportunity Industrialisation Center Technical Vocational Institute create self-employment for youth,

To determine the relationship between Sierra Leone Opportunity Industrialisation Center Technical Vocational Institute and crime rate reduction among youth,

To explore the association between Sierra Leone Opportunity Industrialisation Center Technical Vocational Institute and substance abuse mitigation.

Research Question (s)

How does Sierra Leone Opportunity Industrialisation Center Technical Vocational Institute lead to skill development for youth?

Does Sierra Leone Opportunity Industrialisation Center, Technical Vocational Institute create self-employment for youth?

Is there any relationship between Sierra Leone Opportunity Industrialisation Centre Technical Vocational Institute and crime rate reduction among youth?

What is the association between Sierra Leone Opportunity Industrialisation Center Technical Vocational Institute and substance abuse mitigation?

Nature of the Study

The researcher used a survey research method to collect information from the target population the students of SLOIC both currently enrolled in their final year and those who have graduated. The questionnaire survey research method was used with predefined questions to collect information from the respondents. The target population under study of this research is one hundred and ten (110) students; ninety (90) at the SLOIC currently enrolled and twenty (20) students who have graduated that made up a total population of one hundred and ten (110) students under study. A total of sixty (60) respondents was drawn from the population under investigation. The purposive sampling approach was used to select the forty (40) youth studying and the twenty (20) who have graduated from SLOIC.

 

The independent variable for this study is technical vocational education and skills development. Technical and vocational education according to Frank (2013), involved the acquisition of practical skills, attitude, understanding and knowledge related to occupations in various sector of economic and social life and to equally augment youth to be employed and self-employed. Skills development through technical and vocational education offers a direction that provides the youth in all social sectors and develops their competencies, while at the same time accelerate their transition to work and further learning (Marshall 2010). The dependent variables are; self-employment, crime rate reduction and substance abuse mitigation.

 

Statistical analysis of the data was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The research analysis used is simple descriptive statistics tabulated in frequencies, responses and percentages. The data was converted into tables, graphs and charts with appropriate classification as a way of analysing the information logically. Two methods were used, the qualitative analysed the content. It was done by carefully reading through the descriptive responses of respondents considering each questionnaire as it enhanced the meaning of respondents’ opinions. Another approach used is content analysis; the information was coded which makes interpretation of the data simple as the analysis was then inputted into an excel sheet to obtain graphs and percentages of the information from the study.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Definitions Key Terms

Technical Vocational Education: ‘an education specifically mapped out to develop occupational and entrepreneurship skills’ (Adewale et al., 2014).

Self-reliance: Self-reliance denotes reliance on individual own efforts and abilities (Merrian, 2009).

Self-employment: According to Ifeanacho (2013), the concept of self-employment is the gradual growth of the creativity, the economic growth and social venture, of an individual to explore opportunities successfully through making profitable or suffering a loss of invested capital.

Skills Development: Is the gaining of hands-on task skills, know-how and mindsets essential to accomplish a trade or profession in the labour market (EU Commission, 2012).

Substance abuse: The use of any substance for a purpose not consistent with legal or medical guidelines (WHO, 2006)

The goal of Youth Empowerment Program (YEP) is to develop on the asset young people through a focus on active participation, mastery experiences, self-reliance and positive connections to improve developmental outcomes and positive transitions to adulthood.

Social Empowerment: Social empowerment has to do with accessing chances and resources to make individual choices.

 

Assumptions

The study assumed that respondents would answer questions correctly, cooperate and provide the required information to complete the survey. Another assumption is that not all items in questionnaires will be answered correctly since some questions might not apply to some people and will not have answers for them. It is assumed that not all sixty (60) questionnaires administered will be returned, as some students will be absent. It is believed that the negative perceptions or mind-sets of the participants about technical and vocational education schools might prevent some of the students from participating in the survey. The assumption that respondents will answer correctly and not all will be solved. The researcher overcomes this assumption by reading each question in English, explained in Krio, Themne, Limba, and Mende, as both the researcher and the research assistants can speak one or two of the local languages spoken by the respondents.

 

The interpretation of questionnaires in local languages understood by the respondents makes it easier for the respondents to understand and answer the questions correctly. To ensure that all questionnaires distributed to the respondents are collected, the researcher worked in close with the head of the institution and the student’s president who of SLOIC who offered to coordinate the process to ensure that questionnaires were returned. The assumption that the negative perception of respondents toward technical vocational education will prevent them from participating in the research did not manifest at all; therefore, it a null assumption.

Scope and Delimitations

As a result of inadequate information on the contribution of technical and vocational education on youth development, this study seeks to evaluate the contribution of technical vocational education on youth development. It will provide empirical confirmation that will ascertain that technical and vocational education has a role to play in youth development in the country.

The reason behind the study is that studies that focused on youth development through technical and vocational education in the context of Sierra Leone are deficient. This study will add to existing knowledge about technical vocational education and youth development in Sierra Leone. The study was conducted targeting sixty (60) students from SLOIC as respondents.

 

It will include forty (40) students in their final year because they would have experienced the benefits of technical vocational education. Also, twenty (20) students who have graduated are included in the study, and this is to find out if their employment is as a result of the skills acquired from SLOIC. The study did not include those students in the first and second year of their study, because they have not experienced much impact of technical vocational education and cannot give adequate information required by the study to inform the result.

Limitations

The study left out some students in their final year and graduated student due to the limited time available to the researcher. The researcher used a survey research method to collect information from the population studied. The questionnaire survey research method was employed with predefined questions to collect information from the respondents. The limitations of the questionnaire survey method are, you cannot capture the unique anticipated responses because you have provided the response structure in advance. Another limitation of this design is that busy respondents may not want to take time to answer the questions, while others may try to help by giving pleasant answers that are not genuine.

 

Responses that are unique to the study can be captured in the “others” as one of the responses can address this limitation to some extent because it allows respondents to list other responses the researcher may not have thought about when designing the questionnaire. The researcher and his research assistants took time to go through the questions with the respondents by explaining to them what each item is demanding from them, using the commonly spoken and understood languages in the research area; Krio and Themne. The researcher ensures that he administered the questionnaires to the respondents in time. Therefore, they had ample time to complete the questionnaires.

Significance of the Study

The study is useful to the Government of Sierra Leone, its Ministries, Department and Agencies in terms of policy design for youth empowerment programmes. The private sector will have ample information on which skills are available that will add value to product and services and sustainability of their enterprises. The Civil Society will have accurate information as to how they will complement government efforts and hold the government accountable for not meeting their commitment towards investment in technical vocational education. For educational institutions, especially technical vocational institutions, the study will be a guide in terms of which skills are relevant for the labour market. Its economic and social return to the individual, community and society at large. It will change the perception that technical vocational training is meant only for dropouts, and those who are not brilliant in the mainstream educational institutions.

Finally, it will proffer better intervention strategies that will help match technical vocational skills and labour market requirements in the various sectors that are currently in the shortage of skilled workforce in Sierra Leone. This study will also contribute increase body of knowledge for youth empowerment as it looks at the concept from a different angle.

 

Summary

The chapter introduces the research topic evaluating technical vocational education for youth development. The motivation behind the study is the limited empirical information on how technical vocational education contributes to skills development, self-employment, crime rate reduction, and mitigating substance abuse. Technical vocational education is viewed as education for those who are not brilliant and cannot pursue high education. Technical vocational education has been held with low esteem, neglected and depressed investment by past governments (GoSL 2012). Similarly, TVET has not been given the due attention in Nigeria which is responsible for the high unemployment rate among their youth (Amedu 2013).

 

Also, in Kenya, the lack of skills and employment among youth was said to have mostly been responsible for the 2007 post-election violence in the county. The study seeks to assess how technical vocational education results to skills development for youth, investigate how technical vocational education, create self-employment for youth, determine how technical vocational education result in self-reliance among youth, assess the relationship between technical vocational training and crime rate among youth and explore the association between technical vocational education and substance abuse. The chapter that follows will focus on related literature that discusses technical and vocational education for youth development.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2: Literature Review

Introduction

This chapter reviewed the relevant literature on technical and vocational education and youth development. An assessment and authentication of other scholarly work were consulted for the reliability and integrity of this study. The literature focused on the study variables that informed the study: technical vocational education and skills development, technical vocational education and self-reliance, technical vocational education and self-employment, technical vocational education and crime rate reduction and technical vocational education and substance abuse. The purpose is to have in-depth information on the situation of technical vocational education and its contribution to youth development and how that can be related empirically with findings discussed in chapter five of this study.

Literature Search Strategy

The work was carried out citing the views of different scholars in journal articles, and books using google search engines such as; google scholar and sage. It is arranged according to the research questions. The information for the literature review was gathered using a combination of the key dependent and independent variable terms for this study. Technical vocational education and skill development for youth, technical vocational education and self-employment for youth, technical professional training and self-reliance among youth, and technical vocational education crime rate among youth and technical vocational education and substance abuse.

Literature Review Related to Key Variables

Technical and Vocational Education and Youth Skills Development

Technical and vocational education offers a direction that provides the youth in all social components the benefit to develop their competencies, while also accelerating their transition to work and further learning (Marshall, 2010). On the contrary, skills needed within the industries are in a state of instability due to improvement in technologies, environmental challenges and demographic shifts. The dynamic labour markets require the development of responsive, higher quality and accessible technical and vocational systems. Therefore, skills development through technical and vocational education is vital in responding to labour market needs, and a tool for social empowerment for the youth, especially women and disadvantaged segments (Peter, 2012).

With technical and vocational education growing into various aspects of skills beyond just the functional ones, it also promotes the acquisition and development of entrepreneurial and innovative capabilities for self-employment. Continuing integration of entrepreneurial segments in technical and vocational training for women and vulnerable groups contributes to their personal development, livelihood diversification and empowers them to become active citizens as well (Bauns, 2009). According to (UNESCO, 2010), technical and vocational systems around the world are also in a state of transformation to respond to the current challenges. This transformation differs across regions and levels of development. It includes a transition of technical and vocational education from being a vehicle for functional skills development for employability to the improvement of a range of skills that will help graduates for additional opportunities and learning.

Technical Vocational Education and Self-Employment for Youth
The problem of unemployment is a concern all over the world, but prominent in developing countries with its associated social, economic, political and psychological problems. Unemployment in any nation is an indication of more complex issues. The situation of unemployment in Sierra Leone today has been on the increase with an unemployment rate of 60 percent and has resulted in social vices, poverty among the citizenry, social alienation and other negativity (GoSL, 2014). The UNDP (2011), noted that there are insufficient jobs for youth and self-employment opportunities. It has been difficult for graduates from technical and vocational institutions to have hope or even search for employment.

One of the key indices of a sustainable economy is the ability of a nation to provide gainful employment for its citizens through training (UNDP, 2011). Technical and vocational education according to Frank (2013), is acquiring occupational skills, attitude, and knowledge of various sectors in the economy and preparing the youth to be employed and be self-employed equally. Technical and vocational education is also known to be an integral part of general education a means of preparing for the occupational field and participation for the world of work. Technical and vocational education is the type of training which provides individuals, with skills, knowledge and attitudes for useful employment and self-employment in a specific occupation (Spencer, 2009). However, vocational education and job training programme have been an integral part of national development strategies in many countries, because of the impact on human resources development, productivity and economic growth. In the words of Chinwe (2008), technical and vocational training plays an essential role in improving the wellbeing of youth and communities; it accelerates productivities, empowers individuals so that they become self-reliant and trigger entrepreneurship.

According to Ifeanacho (2013), the concept of self-employment is the gradual growth of a creative, economic and social venture, involves individual exploring opportunities successfully through making profitable or suffering the loss of invested capital. Self-employment mentality can also be gained through technical and vocational education. Today in Sierra Leone, the high incidence of school dropouts among secondary school students highlights the importance of career development, which is achievable through vocational and technical education (UNESCO, 2010). It is the reason why technical and vocational training is not only essential but also pertinent to the development of youth.

 

Governments, funders, and charity standards increasingly demand that young people be involved in the processes that affect their lives and communities (UNESCO, 2010). Youth Empowerment Program (YEP) is designed to build on the assets of young people through a focus on active participation, mastery experiences, self-reliance and positive connections to improve developmental outcomes and positive transitions to adulthood. The notion behind vocational and technical education has been a fundamental part of national development for the developed economy due to its significant impact in national industrialisation and economic growth. The massive rate of unemployment, poverty and poor Socio-Economic status of most Sierra Leonean graduates has generated an outcry of many non-governmental organisations, parents, government bodies and international organisations (UNDP, 2011).

 

Many fail to invest in technical and vocational education so that youth can be self-employed and self-reliant. Investment in technical vocational education is expected to reduce youth dependency syndrome in the country. Unemployment is a common fact that is prominent in developing countries with indirect social, economic, political, and psychological effects (Emeka, 2011). Therefore, high youth unemployment in any country is a sign of severe problems. The situation of unemployment in Sierra Leone has been on the increase which has increased social vices, human capacity under-utilisation; increased poverty amongst the citizenry, social isolation and weak purchasing power (Njoku & Ihugba, 2011).

 

A remedial solution is always found in technical and vocational education by providing the most needed skills for youth to make them independent and self-reliant and contribute to the socio-economic development of the country. Self-reliance denotes reliance on the individual own efforts and abilities (Merrian, 2009). According to Igweh (2008), when somebody acquires skills from technical and vocational education, such a person can establish his or her own business and even employ others. Thus, a self-reliance situation will ensue. Self-reliance Igweh (2008) emphasised, "leads to national development”.

 

Bassey (2009), in his opinion, declared, self-reliance as that which pre-supposes the attainment and autonomy without unnecessarily resorting to begging or borrowing. He emphasised that "a self-reliant individual is one that achieves steady supply of his needs, one that diversifies his resources to reduce dependency on others for assistance”. Thus, self-reliance emphasises growth and development in the life of a youth politically, socially and economically. In this regard, a potently self-reliant individual ensures adequate control of his resources over national life for proper national development. According to UNESCO and ILO (2002), technical and vocational education is the process of planning for job-related fields resulting in applicable input in the world of work. It is done based on continuous learning and preparation for responsible citizenship.

 

Also, Igweh (2008), submitted that the artisans, artisans, technicians and technologists if adequately trained, will fit well in small scale enterprises, industries, colleges and universities. There will be less dependence on foreign technical personnel in our cottage and primary industries. Igweh, (2008) further stated that, there would be an adequate workforce to handle our road maintenance, building, plumbing work, electrification, mechanical works, agriculture, computer and so on. By so doing our production capacity will increase while our import duties decreased, all these he said will lead to national development.

Technical Vocational Education and Crime Rate among Youth.

According to Udaw et al. (2013), the problems of poverty and unemployment have destroyed nearly all nations of the world in different ways. Equally, Adebayo (2013) agreed that, youth’s unemployment and its attendant rising wave of crime are part of the major social problems affecting growth and development in developing nations. Many academics and political analysts have suggested that empowering youth with practical job skills is very imperative to minimise the negative socio-political and economic consequences of joblessness (UNDP, 2010). The rate of unemployment can be mitigated through technical and vocational education. It is pertinent to state that, for technical and vocational training to gain its envisaged multiple objectives, it must be repositioned and strengthened adequately to allow youth acquire skills that make them useful citizens and debar them from slipping into organised crimes.

 

Youths, according to Osakwe (2013), are persons between the ages of 18 and 35. Osakwe (2013) further said, they would typically have completed secondary education, or engaged in technical and vocational training, either in tertiary institutions or striving to secure employment, or already employed. He further argued that the that youth stage is seen as mobility from reliance to self-reliance. The term youth have varying characters such as moving from the parental home to start a new living place of their own. He further sustained that, this requires full-time education, making close, secure personal relationships outside of the family. They mostly end up in marriage, having children and testing the labour market by finding work and possibly settling into a career for sustainable livelihood (Sakwe, 2013).

 

Unemployment as defined by Adebayo (2013), is a condition or a state of being where person or group of persons are without jobs. The root cause of unemployment in most developing countries as identified by Adebayo (2013), are not matching with labour requirement, lack of relevant skills, lack of qualified and trained workforce, rapid rural-urban movement, unsuitable school curricula, fast-growing population, swift development of the educational system, drop in the manufacturing component and corruption. Also, Akwara et al. (2013), noted that unemployment and under-employment in a developing country are caused by the pressure of a rapidly growing population of school leavers, inadequate human resources development. Indeed, unemployment is a global challenge, but it is prevalent mostly in the developing countries of the world with social, economic, political and psychological attendants. He maintained that when youths are gainfully engaged in technical and vocational skills, the rate of crimes associated with unemployment amongst youths will be reduced.

 

There is a connection between youths’ unemployment and national security. According to Adebayo (2013), unemployment in developing countries poses numerous social, economic, political and psychological consequences, that directly and indirectly impact on national security. Some of the social effects are the development of street youth and urban hooligans popularly known as (area boys) a culture that heightens criminal behaviour. Psychologically, unemployed people are generally affected by trauma, anger, frustration, low self-esteem, negative life satisfaction, unhappiness and mental disorder such as depression and acute stress (Adebayo, 2013). About the economic impact of unemployment, youth and non-disabled men from the country looking for better opportunities outside their country, reduce the labour force and workforce capacity. According to Brainma (2012), the ability of a nation to engage its young people in meaningful enterprises considerably decreases the threat of crimes. Technical and vocational education comes in to provide a likely course for youth’s empowerment and development to enhance a liveable crime-free society.

 

Technical Vocational Education and Substance Abuse

There are several implications when a youth is unskilled or unemployed. It has adverse psychological, social, occupational and financial consequences for them (Shadare & Tunde, 2012). The impact of unemployed youth is negative both on their present living conditions, their attitude in the future and the society they are living. Youth without requisite skills, to make them employable are almost always susceptible to social vices such as drugs abuse (Ishiel, 2010). One of the primary reasons for drug and substance abuse among youth in many countries is the absence of educational policies that primarily targets youth, and this can be found in the establishment of technical and vocational institutions to cushion the effect of drugs abuse.

 

Ajaegbu (2012) argued that, urban society is becoming criminalised with the use of drugs and other substances taking centre stage, especially with the proliferation of youth gangs and drug cartels. This catastrophic situation is still a massive task for many counties. Those countries that promulgate policies of youth empowerment by engaging them in technical and vocational education have triumphed in reducing the use of drugs and substances by youth that makes them violent and disruptive (Krugal et al., 2009).

 

Summary

Marshall, (2010), states that technical vocational education provides youth with the opportunities to increase their transition to work and future learning. Peter (2012), submitted that skills needed in industries are in a state of instability because of the advancement in technologies, environmental challenges and demographic shifts. Marshall (2010), said, technical vocational education is critical in responding to the labour market needs and social empowerment for youth. Technical vocational education promotes the development of entrepreneurial and innovative skills for self-employment, (Bauns, 2009). There are insufficient jobs for youth, lack of self-employment opportunities which made it difficult for graduates from technical vocational institutions to engage in self-employment, (UNDP, 2011).

Practical skills, attitude, understanding and knowledge that relates to occupation in the economic and social sector enhance employability and self-employment for youth through technical vocational education, (Frank, 2013). Similarly, Spencer, (2009), agree with Frank, (2013) that, technical vocational training provide employment and self-employment. Technical vocational training plays an essential role in enhancing the wellbeing of youth, their communities for self-reliance (Chinwe, 2008). In Sierra Leone, career development is achievable among secondary school dropout through technical vocational education (UNESCO, 2010). The literature reviewed shows that there is a failure to invest in technical vocational education for youth self-employment, and self-reliance and consequently leading to social, economic and psychological adverse effects (Emeka, 2011).

 

In their study, Njoku & Ihugba (2011), shows that there is increased unemployment in Sierra Leone which has resulted to social vices, human capacity underutilised, poverty increased, social isolation and weak purchasing power. Igweh (2008), in his opinion, affirmed that well-trained artisans, craftsmen, technicians and technologists would fit well in small scale enterprises, industries, colleges and universities. Adebayo (2013), established that youth unemployment and its attendant rising wave of crime are part of critical social problems affecting the growth and development of developing nations. Shadare & Tunde (2012), finds out that there are psychological, social, occupational and financial implications for unskilled or unemployed youth. Also, Ishiel, (2010), affirmed that unemployed youth face negative impact both on their present living conditions, their attitude in the future and the society they are living. Technical and vocational education will reduce the use of drugs and substances abuse by youth that makes them violent and disruptive, (Krugal et al., 2009).

The chapter that follows in this study discussed the research design, population, sampling of the people, sampling technique, the instrument for data collection, delimitation, the method of data analysis and ethical consideration.

Chapter 3: Methodology

Introduction

The study used both qualitative and quantitative analysis and the survey method to evaluate the contribution of Sierra Leone Opportunity Industrialisation Center Technical Vocational Institute on youth development in the Bombali district. Chapter 3 discussed research design and rationale, methodology; population, sampling and sampling procedures, procedures for recruitment, data analysis, ethical procedures and summary.

 

Research Design and Rationale

The survey research method was used in this study. The design seeks to provide a descriptive investigation by evaluating the impact of technical vocational education on youth development. A descriptive survey was used because only part of the population was studied and findings from this are expected to be generalised to the entire population of youth in Bombali district. The survey research design permits comparison within a given subject under study, and this method can answer the research questions of this study which are; does Technical Vocational Education lead to skill development for youth? Does Technical Vocational Education, create self-employment for youth? It also explores the relationship between Technical Vocational Education and crime rate reduction among youth, the association between Technical Vocational Education and substance abuse. The reason for choosing the survey method as a design is that it allows data to be collected and analysed from a few respondents that serve as representatives of the entire group. The design is used because only a part of the population is studied, and findings from this are expected to be generalised for the whole population.

Population
The target population for this study include students between the ages of 15-35 in their final year at the Sierra Leone Opportunity and Industrialization Centre (SLOIC) and those who have graduated. The target population of the research under study is one hundred and ten (110) students at the SLOIC; ninety (90) currently enrolled in their final year and twenty (20) students who have graduated making a total population of one hundred and ten (110) students. The data for this study is collected from sixty (60) students of the SLOIC forty (40) student in their final year and twenty (20) students who have graduated. The data was collected by administering questionnaires and analysed using simple descriptive statistics with a frequency table, bar charts, pie charts and percentages.

 

Sampling and Sampling Procedures

The sampling method used is a purposive method to select forty (40) youth currently studying and 20 who have graduated from SLOIC. This technique was adopted because it helped identify easily and directly respondents who have the required information of the study. The purposive sampling technique employed by the researcher was preferred because it will collect fundamental information directly from the beneficiaries of technical vocational education.

The purposive sampling procedure targeted selected representatives’ various courses offered by (SLOIC), such as catering, surveying, welding, woodwork, building and construction, electrical installation and plumbing of the institution. The researcher selected sixty (60) respondents for this study and simple random sampling was used in selecting the sample. In choosing the sample, names of twenty (20) students from each course area; Catering, Tailoring, Carpentry, Electrical Installation, Welding, and Plumbing, were written on slips. Slips were folded and put in a plastic bag after a thorough reshuffling, the researcher, not looking into the plastic, dips his hand and picks one slip. He unfolds the slip, record the name of the student on the slip, folds it again and put it back into the container.

 

This process was repeated until he draws the sixty respondents out of the one hundred and twenty (120) identified from the six course areas. Therefore, all the sixty (60) respondents from the (6) course areas were sampled. The study targeted youth age in the 15-35 years because they are the focus of the study. Those students in their first year of study where not selected because it is assumed that they have just been enrolled in their course and do not have adequate information require. Those below 15 and above 35 years were excluded from the study because it is the researcher’s opinion that the productive and technical skills acquisition is between 15-35 years.

 

Procedures for Recruitment, Participation, and Data Collection

The demographic information that was collected from respondents is their sex, age, occupation, educational level, the activity engaged in before enrolling for a course at SLOIC, and courses they are studying. Instrument used for data collection is a structured questionnaire. It was designed and constructed by the researcher. The researcher administered the instrument to the respondents. The administration of surveys was carried out on days when the respondents are attending lectures. A total of sixty (60) questionnaires were distributed to the respondents. All sixty (60) questionnaires were administered and retrieved from the respondents. All the respondents had some secondary education or some completed secondary education. Therefore, most can read on their own. Though the researcher and his assistants had to clarify some questions for better understanding by the respondents. Each questionnaire was accompanied by an informed consent note that was read to respondents requesting their participation. They were also given the free will not participate in the study.

 

Data Analysis Plan
Statistical analysis of the data was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The type of statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations. There are (4) research questions answered by this study. Does Technical Vocational Education lead to skill development for youth? Does Technical Vocational Education, create self-employment for youth? Is there any relationship between Technical Vocational Education and crime rate reduction among youth? What is the association between Technical Vocational Education and substance abuse?

The research analysis used is simple descriptive statistics tabulated in frequencies, responses and percentages. The analysis included editing the field data and organizing them into groups based on common characteristics for ease of analysis, such as sex, age, education level, technical vocational education and youth development, technical vocational education and self-employment, technical vocational education and self-reliance, technical vocational education and crime rate, and technical vocational education and substance abuse.

 

The data was converted into tables, graphs and charts with appropriate classification as a way of analysing the information logically. Two methods were used, the qualitative analysed the content. It was done by carefully reading through the descriptive responses of respondents considering each questionnaire as it enhanced the meaning of respondents’ opinions. Another approach used is content analysis; the information was coded which makes interpretation of the data simple as the analysis was then inputted into an excel sheet to obtain graphs and percentages of the information from the study.

Ethical Procedures

Research ethics was fundamental in collecting data from the respondents. Therefore, confidential of the individuals are critical for their safety, integrity and security. The researcher considered ethical concern. After seeking respondents informed consent, every participant was informed of their rights to accept, reject or decline their participation at any stage of the data collection process. Also, the data collected was handled in confidentiality by the researcher. The participants were even educated on the type of information to be elicited. The research will not cause any misrepresentation to the respondents because the questionnaires were coded, consent either south or forms signed and confidentiality of the participants was very much considered. The respondents showed high willingness in cooperating with the exercise due to the openness and security shown before the exercise.

The researcher is fully convinced that the respondents opted willingly without any undue pressure exerted on them. Both institutional and individual consents were sought in which respondents were given consent form. The researcher assured respondents confidentiality by making respondents anonymous. In this regard, the privacy of respondents was strictly observed, and no exposure of any personal information of parties in the write up was done. The data obtained from respondents was processed and analysed in a realistic atmosphere to ensure strict compliance of data security and integrity to maintain best practices.

Summary

The study used both qualitative and quantitative survey method to evaluate the contribution of technical vocational education on youth development in the Bombali district. The design is used because only a part of the population is studied, and findings from this are expected to be generalised for the whole population. The target population of the research under study is one hundred and ten (110) students at the SLOIC; ninety (90) currently enrolled in their final year and twenty (20) students who have graduated making a total population of one hundred and ten (110) students. A total of sixty (60) respondents was drawn from the population under investigation. The purposive sampling approach was used to select the forty (40) youth studying and the twenty (20) who have graduated from SLOIC.

The demographic information that was collected from respondents is there sex, age occupation, the educational level before joining SLOIC, the activity engaged in before enrolling for a course at SLOIC, and course offered. Statistical analysis of the data was done through the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used. The type of statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations, and correlations. The research questions were taken into consideration, analysed using the qualitative data gathered from the field. Both institutional and individual consents were sought in which respondents were given consent form stating the purpose of the study and requesting willingness to participate or not to participate in the study. The data obtained from respondents was processed and analysed in a realistic atmosphere to ensure strict compliance of data security and integrity to maintain best practices.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4: Data Analysis

Introduction

This section of the study presents data collected during the research, in tabular form, graphs and charts with frequencies and percentages. Sixty (60) questionnaires collected from the target respondents at (SLOIC). The information that is not statistical is presented in narrative form, and a brief data analysis follows each table. It rationally measured the impact of technical vocational education on youth development in the Bombali district.

Data collection

The research took (6) months ranging from identification of research topic, preparation of developing formulating depended and independent variables lasted for a month, chapters 1-3 write-up took 2 months, while questionnaire development took 2 weeks, administration of sixty (60) questionnaire took 7 days, and each questionnaire took approximately 20 minutes to be completed.

Table 1: Gender of Respondents

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

 

Male

35

58.3

58.3

58.3

Female

25

41.7

41.7

100.0

Total

60

100.0

100.0

 

Source: Survey Data, 2019.

  1. 1 above records that out of the 60-youth interviewed, 35 are male accounting for 58.3%, compared to their female colleagues who constituted 41.7 % (25) of the total population interviewed. These findings are attributed to the fact that male youth seem to be involved in most of the training offered in SLOIC while the female youth are found in hospitality and beautification training such as catering and hairdressing.

 

Youth previous activities before enrolment to SLOIC.

The researcher wanted to explore on the activities of the currently enrolled students before joining the institution, and most of the views echoed by the students regarding their daily activities before joining SLOIC is presented on the table below.

 

Table 2: Previous Youth activities before enrolment to SLOIC.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

 

Riding Bike(Okada)

28

46.7

46.7

46.7

Going to school

7

11.7

11.7

58.3

Just on the street hustling

6

10.0

10.0

68.3

Engaged in anti-social activities

4

6.7

6.7

75.0

Nothing

3

5.0

5.0

80.0

Others (specify

12

20.0

20.0

100.0

Total

60

100.0

100.0

 

Source: Survey Data, 2019.

From table 2, youth who were engaged in Bike riding(Okada) before enrolling into SLOIC account for 28 respondents (46.7%). Those youth who were involved in other activities before enrolling to SLOIC accounted for 12 respondents (20.0%). Youth hustling on the streets before SLOIC accounted for six respondents (10.0%). The percentage of youth involved in Okada riding from the data cannot be unconnected to the fact that most of the youth took to this activity after the war due to lack of skills and the limited employment opportunities in the country by then. Youth who wanted to learn skills and become independent decided to enrol in the institution and majority of the youth who are currently enrolled at the institution were Okada riders before enrolment. This information is underscored in the chart below.

 

Figure 1: Youth

activities before joining SLOIC.

The education level of currently enrolled and graduated youths

Before joining SLOIC for both current and graduated youth at the institution, the researcher looked at the level of education of the youth to determine the level of understanding of their training. It is essential to gauge the method of teaching that befits the cognitive skills of these youth. Table 3 below illustrates the education level of these youth empirically.

 

 

 

 

Table 3: What was your educational Status before joining SLOIC?

 

 

Category of youths

Total

Youths that have graduated

Youths currently enrolled

What is your educational Status before joining SLOIC?

Primary

6

0

6

Some Secondary

5

26

31

Completed Secondary

11

4

15

Post-Secondary

2

0

2

None

6

0

6

Total

30

30

60

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Survey Data, 2019.

Table 3 above shows that youth who had some secondary education before enrolling into SLOIC are dominant in the institution. A total of 31 youth (51.6%) of the total population interviewed (the two categories of youth) got some secondary education. Out of this number, 5 youth (8.3%) who have graduated had some secondary education. For those youth that are currently enrolled, 26 (43.3%) of them have some secondary education to enable them to go through the training. Even though youth with some secondary education form the majority in terms of educational level, however those with secondary education also form part of the educational status of these youths. A total of 15 (25%) youth had secondary education. 11 (18.3%) of the graduated youth had secondary education as compared to 4 (6.6%) currently enrolled youth with secondary education.

 

It is practical to say that the educational status of youth (currently enrolled and graduated) are those with some secondary education, especially for the currently enrolled ones. It justifies the supposition SLOIC encourages youth who did not even complete secondary school to enter into its courses which are very necessary to help more youth to acquire skills.

It is interesting that youth who have graduated completed secondary school which is good for their professional development. The chart below gives a graphic presentation of the educational status of youth both enrolled and graduated.

 

Figure 2: Education level of currently enrolled and graduated youth

Skills development and self-employment

Trying to know what motivated youth to enrol at SLOIC was critical to the research because this formed the basis to empirically determine whether the reasons put forward by the youth are reflective of their aspirations upon graduation. Questions were asked to currently enrolled youth to proffer their motivations for joining the institution.

Table 4: Why did you decide to enroll for a course at SLOIC

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

 

To acquire skills and become self-employed

32

53.3

53.3

53.3

To secure a job after graduation

10

16.7

16.7

70.0

To give life meaning in society

9

15.0

15.0

85.0

To avoid idleness

4

6.7

6.7

91.7

Contribute to the development of Sierra Leone

4

6.7

6.7

98.3

To be able to acquire the required certificate and training

1

1.7

1.7

100.0

Total

60

100.0

100.0

 

Source: Survey Data, 2019.

It is clear from table 4 that youth who said they are motivated to enrol at SLOIC because they want to get skills and become self-employed recorded 32 respondents (53.3%). Those who said they want to get a job after graduation accounted for 10 interviewees (16.7) and those who said they want to give life meaning in society recorded 9 participants (15.0). It is worthy to note that acquiring skills for self-employment is an overwhelming reason for youth coming to SLOIC, especially for the currently enrolled ones. This general feeling of youth interviewed, and they always have the view of getting the required skills to enhance the personal development of their lives. The youth believed that the skills they are acquiring would lead them to secure a better future and become self-employed. It is illustrated on the line chart below show the motivation trend of youth for joining SLOIC.

Skills/Courses acquired by youth (currently enrolled and graduated youth)

The researcher wanted to know which skills/courses are more prevalent and demanding to the youth in a comparative analysis for both those that are currently studying and those that have graduated.

 

Table 5: What course/skill are you enrolled in?

 

 

Category of youths

Total

Youths that have graduated

Youths currently enrolled

What course/skill are you enrolled in?

Catering

5

18

23

Tailoring

5

0

5

Woodwork

3

0

3

Building& Construction

5

0

5

Electrical Installation

6

7

13

Welding

3

1

4

Plumbing

3

1

4

Others-

0

3

3

Total

30

30

60

 

The above Table 11 gives, a total of 23 youth (38.3%) (both graduated and currently enrolled) (56.7%) offered or are offering Catering as this is more attractive to female youth. Out of this number, 5 (8.3%) graduated with catering skills while 18 youth (30%) are currently doing catering skills. A total of 13 youth (21.6%) offered or offering Electrical Installation skills/courses. From this number, 6 accounts for (10%) while 7 accounts for (11.6%). It justifies the fact that catering and electrical installation are key areas attracted to youth at SLOIC. The female youth, in particular, are more attracted to acquiring catering skills as the demand for this skill is increasing in Makeni with the proliferation of food centres in the city. Male youth are also becoming attracted to this skill as most of them to open their own food centres to employ other people.

 

Electrical Installation is another compelling skill for the youth, and this skill is more appealing to the male youth as compared to their female counterparts. The study discovered that the leading destination for youth graduating with this skill is the Electricity Distribution Supply Authority (EDSA) while some prefer to be self-employed operating as freelance electricians. Even though the youth have a variety of skills, they acquired from the institution, yet there are some challenges faced by the institution and could pose serious problems if not tackled.

 

Figure 3: Reasons for enrolling at SLOIC

Crime Rate and Substance Abuse Reduction

Table 6: Why did you decide to enter for a course at SLOIC? (Graduated youths)

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

 

To get employable skills

24

40.0

40.0

40.0

To stop committing crimes

20

33.3

33.3

73.3

For self-reliance

12

20.0

20.0

93.3

To reduce substance abuse

4

6.7

6.7

100.0

Total

60

100.0

100.0

 

Source: Survey Data, 2019.

 

For those youth who have graduated from SLOIC, their fundamental motivation for enrolling in the institution was to get employable skills. A total of 24 youth (40.0%) out of sample interviewed confirmed this. To stop committing crimes was another reason and 20 participants (33. 3%) acknowledged this. 12 interviewees (20.0%) said their reason for joining SLOIC was for self-reliance. Like the currently enrolled youth, graduated youth also confirmed their motivation to get skills involved employment for sustainable livelihoods so that committing crimes is curtailed and be self-reliant. 4 respondents representing 6.7% said their reasons for joining SLOIC is to mitigate substance abuse. Indeed, most of the youths who have graduated have gained employment, and some have established their businesses.

Associating jobs of graduated youth with skills learnt at SLOIC
To ascertain whether trained youth got employment related to what they acquired, the researcher made an inquiry by asking youth about their careers and how skills are related to their jobs.

Table 7: Is your current job/ self-employed directly related to what you studied at SLOIC?

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

 

Yes

45

75.0

75.0

75.0

No

15

25.0

25.0

100.0

Total

60

100.0

100.0

 

Source: Survey Data, 2019.

Table 6 illustrates that 75.0%, i.e. 45 youth maintained that their current jobs are related to the skills they learnt from SLOIC. Female youth interviewed have employment at restaurants and cafeterias to eke a living, and male youth found themselves in carpentry and electrical jobs etc. It is a laudable finding that measures the skills impact related to youths

In another development, graduate youths were interviewed whether the education they received has made them self-reliant. It was done to prompt responses from this youth to measure the self-reliance variable for a logical conclusion.

Table 8: Do you think you are now self-reliant as a result of the education you received at SLOIC? (Graduated Youths)

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

 

Yes

42

70.0

70.0

70.0

No

18

30.0

30.0

100.0

Total

60

100.0

100.0

 

Source: Survey Data, 2019

Forty-two 42 youths (70.0%) surveyed said they were now self-reliant after receiving practical skills from SLOIC. It suggests that youth who have graduated from the institution seemed to be self-sufficient. There are those who still don't have employment since graduation, and as such, they don't seem to be self-reliant.

 

Figure 4: Youth Skills and Self-reliance

Benefits of skills training to the graduated youths
Skills and benefits are essential components of the research in which the researcher wanted to know how the skills gained by the youth have benefitted them. This necessary to explore whether skills match youth employability Table below underscores youth's responses related to the benefit of the skills they acquired at SLOIC.

 

Table 9: How beneficial are these skills to you (Graduated youths)

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

 

I can take care of my family from the income earned through the skills acquired

11

18.3

18.3

18.3

I can now support my family

5

8.3

8.3

26.7

It makes me a job creator, not a job seeker

27

45.0

45.0

71.7

It gives me job satisfaction

5

8.3

8.3

80.0

My productivity is increased

1

1.7

1.7

81.7

My status has changed

11

18.3

18.3

100.0

Total

60

100.0

100.0

 

Source: Survey Data, 2019.

It is an absolute reality that 27 youth 45.0% reported that the benefit of the skills they have acquired at the institution makes them jobs creators, not job seekers. Conversely, 11 (18.3%) recorded that the skills they have learned help them take care of their families through the income generated from their jobs. Eleven interviewees (18.3%) said their statuses have changed as a result of the skills they had which has contributed immensely to their income generation.

Those who said they can now support their families accounted for 5 (8.3%) similar to those who said the skills acquired to give them job satisfaction. It is therefore authoritative to state that, indeed the skills received by the youth are beneficial to them and contribute in no small measure, to the development of their wellbeing. Youth have ventured into establishing their enterprises from the skills acquired, and this has helped them create jobs to employ others rather than looking for jobs all the time.

Taking care of their families from the income they receive from the jobs they do is another milestone justifying the impact technical and vocational education had on the graduated youth. The chart below gives a graphical presentation of the benefits youth derived from acquiring these skills.

Figure 5: Benefits of skills training to the graduated youths

A Likert 5-point scale was used to scale youth's opinions, and perceptions concerning the impact of technical and vocational education on skills development, self-reliance, self-employment, crime reduction and substance abuse as it relates to the youth.

 

Table 10: Technical and Vocational Education will enhance Issues such as skills, self-employment and self-reliance of the student.

 

 

Category of youths

Total

Youths that have graduated

Youths currently enrolled

Technical and Vocational Education will enhance Issues such as skills, self-employment and self-reliance of students.

Strongly Agree

20

22

42

Agree

8

2

10

Neutral

2

2

4

Strongly Disagree

0

1

1

Disagree

0

3

3

Total

30

30

60

Source: Survey Data, 2019.

From Table 9, a total of 42 youth (70%) (both graduated and currently enrolled) (56.7%) strongly Agreed to the statement that Technical and vocational education would enhance issues such as skills development, self-employment and self-reliance. Twenty graduate youth (33.3%) strongly agreed to the above statement. Twenty-two currently enrolled students (36.6%) subscribed to the same account. Three (5%) of the presently enrolled youth disagreed to the comment above.

Equally, a total of 10 respondents (16.6%) agreed to the statement as it relates to the one above. 8 respondents that have graduated accounting for (13.3%) agreed to the statement and 2 (3.3%) currently enrolled youth also agreed to the same thing. Those youth who chose to remain neutral in their opinions recorded 4 (6.6%). With 2 (3.3%) of the graduated youths remained neutral and the same for currently enrolled youths.

It is noteworthy; therefore, 86.6 % of the youths surveyed believed that technical and vocational education would undoubtedly enhance skills, self-employment, self-reliance as they relate to them. The national grid to alternative energy supply because they see the network to be more effective and efficient. This is illustrative on the chart below.

 

Figure 6: Technical and Vocational Education Issues such as skills, self-employment and self-reliance will be enhanced.

Monthly income of graduated youth

To ascertain the monthly income level of those youth that has graduated, questions related to how much they earn monthly were posed to measure the impact of these earnings relative to the skills they have acquired from the institution.

Table11: How much do you earn monthly? (Graduated Youths)

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

 

Less than Le1,000,000

16

26.7

26.7

26.7

Le1,000,000 –Le2,000,000

9

15.0

15.0

41.7

Le 2,000,000-Le3,000,000

34

56.7

56.7

98.3

Le4,000,000-Le5,000,00

1

1.7

1.7

100.0

Total

60

100.0

100.0

 

Source: Survey Data, 2019.

The table above illustrates the differences in the monthly income of graduated working youth. Those who earn around the range of Le 2,000,000.00-Le 3,000,000.00 per month recorded 34 youth (56.7). While those who make less than Le 1,000,000.00 accounted for 16 youth (26.7). It is indicative of the fact that there is a steady flow of monthly income for youth that have graduated and it is interesting to note that the jobs they do are directly proportional to the skills gained. These earnings are essential for the upkeep of the youth and their families.

Figure 7: Graduated youth’s monthly income

The above graph clearly explains that youth who have graduated and working at the same time have a high income to take care of needs.

Figure 9: Major challenges faced by youth at SLOIC

From the chart above, 56% of the youths especially the currently enrolled ones said there are inadequate learning materials and equipment. While 20% of the youths said they don't have enough classroom space and 17% recorded the lack of internet connection in the school.

Improving Technical and Vocation education in SLOIC Makeni
Improving technical and vocational education is a major issue and youths were asked about their opinions concerning the improvement of technical and vocational education.

Table 12 below, a total of 31 youths (51.6%) (both graduated and currently enrolled) (56.7%) opined that regular monitoring of training and learning material should be done. 27 graduated youths (45%) accepted the

fact that regular monitoring of training and learning materials should be done. 4(6.6% of currently enrolled youth supported the idea.

Equally, a total of 16 respondents (26.6%) recorded that Essential training materials should be supplied to the students and the Institutions. 3 (5%) youths that have graduated confirmed this and 13 (21.6%) currently enrolled youths subscribe to this view.

Table 12: What do you think should be done to improve the technical and vocational education system in Makeni

 

Category of youths

Total

Youths that have graduated

Youths currently enrolled

What dshould be done to improve the technical and vocational education system in Makeni

Regular monitoring of training and learning materials

27

4

31

Essential training materials should be supplied to the students and the Institutions

3

13

16

The government should support Tec.-Voc. in the country

0

4

4

All districts should have well equipped Tec. Voc. Institutions

0

6

6

Increase the number of Tec.-Voc. Institutions across the districts

0

3

3

Total

30

30

60

Source: Survey Data, 2019.

Result

The study interviewed sixty (60) respondents’ youth age 15-35, with 58.3%, being male and female constituted 41.7 % of the total population interviewed. The study revealed that 46.7% youth questioned engaged in commercial Bike Riding (Okada) 20.0%, other activities and 10% hustling on the streets before their enrolment to SLOIC. Finding shows that youth who have graduated were motivated to enrolling to get employable skills. 40.0% of sample confirm this. 33.3% said to stop committing crimes while 20.0% of the total population said their reason for joining SLOIC was for self-reliance. Findings also proved that 75.0% of the youth confirmed that their current jobs are related to the skills they learnt from SLOIC. It measures the skills impact related to youth through technical vocational education.

 

Summary

The study indicated that 70.0% surveyed said they are indeed self-reliant since receiving practical skills from SLOIC. The study also found that 45.0% admitted of the benefit of the skills they have acquired at the institution which makes them jobs creators, not job seekers. Also, 18.3% recorded that the skills they have learned have helped them take care of their families through the income generated from their jobs. It is interesting to note that a total of 70% of the youth population (both graduated and currently enrolled), strongly agreed to the statement that technical and vocational education would enhance issues such as skills development, self-employment and self-reliance. 33.3% of the graduated youth strongly agreed to the above statement regarding technical and vocational education. 36.6% currently enrolled student subscribed to the same statement. 5% of the presently enrolled youth disagreed to the statement above. It is noteworthy that 86.6% of the youth surveyed believed that technical and vocational education would undoubtedly enhance skills, self-employment, self-reliance as they relate to them. The chapter that follows presents the interpretation of findings, limitations of the study, implication, recommendations and conclusion.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5: Interpretation of Findings, Recommendations and Conclusions

Introduction

This chapter discussed detailed of the findings from respondents, tailored in line with the stated objectives and the research questions. The research results were compared with works of authors in the literature review whether in line with the topic under investigation. Evaluating the contribution of Sierra Leone Opportunity Industrialisation Centre Technical Vocational Institute on youth development in the Bombali district.

Interpretation of the Findings

The study revealed that out of 60 youth interviewed, 58.3%, are male youth who constituted the majority spoken to as compared to their female colleagues who represented 41.7 % of the total population interviewed. The findings could be attributed to the fact that male youth seem to be involved in most of the training offered at SLOIC, while the female youth mostly engaged in hospitality and beautification training such as catering and hairdressing. The attraction of male youth at SLOIC cannot be unconnected to the desire of these young men finding something meaningful in their lives. Although male youth dominate SLOIC. However, it is not to say that female youth are not active in the training of the institution, but most of the training is appealing to the male youth warranting an increase in the enrolment of male students in at SLOIC.

 

What is also striking in the findings is that 46.7% of the youth interviewed engaged into commercial Bike Riding (Okada) while those youth who engaged into other activities before enrolling to SLOIC account for 20.0% of the total population of youth surveyed. Youth hustling on the streets before SLOIC account for 10.0%. The percentage of youth involving in Okada riding from the study cannot be avoided to the fact that most of the youth took to this activity after the war due to the limited employment opportunities in the country by then. Youth who wanted to learn skills and become independent decided to enrol in the institution which is why the majority of the youth who are currently enrolled at the institution are male. The research also discovers that youth who had some secondary education before enrolling into SLOIC are dominant in the institution. A total of 51.6% of the total population interviewed (the two categories of youth) got some secondary education. Out of this number, 8.3% who have graduated had some secondary education. For those youth that are currently enrolled, 43.3% of them have some secondary education to enable them to go through the training.

Technical Vocational Education and Skills Development

According to the findings, 53.3% of youth said they are motivated to enrol at SLOIC because they want to get skills and become self-employed. Those who said they want to get a job after graduation accounted for 16.7% and those who said they want to give life a meaning in society recorded 15.0%. It is worthy to note that acquiring skills for self-employment is a fundamental reason for youth coming to SLOIC, especially for the currently enrolled ones. The general feeling of youth interviewed, and they always have the view of getting the required skills to enhance the personal development of their lives. The youth believed that the skills they are acquiring would lead them to secure a better future and become self-employed.

For those youth who have graduated from SLOIC, their fundamental motivation for enrolling in the institution was to get employable skills. A total of 40.0% out of sample interviewed confirm this. It is in line with the work of Marshall (2010), he stated that technical and vocational education offers a direction that provides the youth in all social components the benefit to developing their competencies, and also accelerate their transition to work and further learning. It also resonates with Peter (2012) who said, skills development through technical and vocational education is essential in responding to labour market needs, and a tool for social empowerment for the youth, especially women and disadvantaged segments.

 

Technical Vocational Education and Self-Employment for Youth

Youth have ventured into establishing their enterprises from the skills acquired, and this has helped them create jobs to employ others rather than looking for jobs all the time. Taking care of their families from the income they get from the job they do is another milestone justifying the impact Technical, and vocational education had on the graduated youth. It is interesting to note that a total of 70% of the youth population (both graduated and currently enrolled), strongly agreed to the statement that technical and vocational education would enhance issues like skills development, self-employment and self-reliance. 33.3% of the graduated youth strongly agreed to the above statement regarding technical and vocational education. 36.6% currently enrolled student subscribed to the same statement. 5% of the presently enrolled youth disagreed to the statement above.

It is noteworthy; therefore, 86.6% of the youth surveyed believed that technical and vocational education would undoubtedly enhance skills, self-employment, self-reliance as they relate to them. The above submission is in agreement with Merrian (2009). Who submitted that technical and vocational education provides the most needed skills for youth to make them independent and self-reliant and contribute to the socio-economic development of the country. Also, Igweh (2008) noted that when somebody acquires skills from technical and vocational education, such a person can establish his or her own business and even employ others. Thus, a self-reliance situation will ensue. Self-reliance Igweh (2008) emphasised, "leads to national development”. Bassey (2009), in his opinion, declared, self-reliance as that which pre-supposes the attainment and autonomy without unnecessarily resorting to begging or borrowing.

Findings also proved that 75.0% of the youth confirmed that their current jobs are related to the skills they learnt from SLOIC. Female youth interviewed have employment at restaurants and cafeterias to eke a living, and male youth found themselves in carpentry, plumbing, building and construction, and electrical installation jobs. The findings measure the skills impact related to youth through technical vocational education. Logically, 70.0% surveyed said they are indeed self-reliant since receiving practical skills from SLOIC. It is judicious to state that youth who have graduated from the institution seemed to be self-reliant in their jobs in their various places of employment. Morris (2010), confirmed this finding that technical and vocational institutions are perfect substitutes to general education which should be providing technical and Vocational training is needed in the job market. While Spencer (2009) argues that, skills that are employable and demand-driven should be the focus of technical and vocational institutions for the development of the recipients who are mostly youth. Though there are those who still don't have employment since graduation and as such, they don't seem to be self-reliant, the study also found that 45.0% admitted of the benefit of the skills they have acquired at the institution which makes them jobs creators, not job seekers.

Conversely, 18.3% recorded that the skills they have acquired have helped them take care of their families through the income generated from their jobs. 18.3% said their statuses have changed as a result of the skills they had which has contributed immensely to their income generation. Those who said they can now support their families accounted for 8.3%. It has a direct proportion to those who said the skills acquired to give them job satisfaction and they accounted for 8.5% It is therefore empirical to state that indeed the skills received by the youth are beneficial to them and has contributed in no small measure to the development of their wellbeing. Given findings above, Bauns (2009) asserted that with technical and vocational education growing into various aspects of skills beyond the functional ones, it also promotes the acquisition and development of entrepreneurial and innovative capabilities for self-employment (Bauns, 2009). The fact is supported by UNDP (2011) that key indices of a sustainable economy is the ability of nations to provide gainful employment for its citizens through training. Frank (2013) agreed that, technical and vocational education involves acquiring occupational skills, attitude, and knowledge related to various sectors of the economy and it equally prepare youth to be employed and be self-employed. In the words of Chinwe (2008), technical and vocational training plays an essential role in improving the wellbeing of youth and communities; it accelerates productivities, empowers individuals so that they become self-reliant and trigger entrepreneurship.

Technical Vocational Education and Crime Rate among Youth

  1. survey revealed that 70% of the youth including the currently enrolled and graduated ones strongly believed that that technical and vocational education enhanced issues such as skills development, self-employment and self-reliance. This finding mirrors the findings of Igweh (2008) and Bassey (2009) as stated above. It is no doubt that youth overwhelmingly agreed to this and this has indeed helped reduced incidences of crimes within the Makeni municipality as it is highly unlikely for youth who have acquired skills and employed to commit crimes and engage in substance abuse. To stop committing crimes was another reason graduated youth joined SLOIC and 33. 3% acknowledged this. Like the currently enrolled youth, graduated youth also confirmed of their motivation to get skills that are employable for sustainable livelihoods so that committing crimes will be curtailed to have become self-reliant. Indeed, most of the youth who have graduated have gained employment and some have established their own businesses.

Udaw et al. (2013), said the problems of poverty and unemployment had destroyed nearly all nations of the world in different ways. Equally, Adebayo (2013) agreed that youth's unemployment and its attendant rising wave of crime are part of the major social problems affecting growth and development in developing nations. The UNDP (2010) suggested that empowering youth with practical job skills is very imperative to minimise the negative socio-political and economic consequences of joblessness. When youths are gainfully engaged in technical and vocational skills, the rate of crimes associated with unemployment amongst them will be reduced. Brainma (2012), also find out that the ability of a nation to engage its young people in meaningful enterprises considerably decreases the threat of crimes. It was manifested in the findings of the study that technical and vocational education empowerment youth and enhance a liveable crime-free society as 33. 3% acknowledged this.

 

Technical Vocational Education and Substance Abuse

Finding from the study shows that 4 respondents representing 6.7% said their reasons for joining SLOIC is to mitigate substance abuse. Shadare & Tunde (2012) said there are several implications when youth are unskilled or unemployed. It has adverse psychological, social, occupational and financial consequences for them. Ajaegbu (2012) argued that urban society is becoming criminalised with the use of drugs and other substances taking centre stage, especially with the proliferation of youth gangs and drug cartels. This catastrophic situation is still a massive task for many counties. On the contrary, Krugal et al. (2009), submitted that those countries that promulgate policies of youth empowerment by engaging them in technical and vocational education have triumphed in reducing the use of drugs and substances by youth that makes them violent and disruption.

Limitations of the Study

Before the study it was envisaged that the survey method would not produce the of data needed to create a full picture of how technical vocational education contribute to youth development. It was overcome by the researcher using the purposive sample technique for the selection of the sixty (60) youth to ensure that respondents with the required information are easily identified for the study. Another limitation was the survey method will not be applicable for low literacy audience, and the response rate will be prolonged, time-consuming and very expensive. The researcher and his research assistants took time to go through the questions with the respondents by explaining to them what each item is demanding from them, using the commonly spoken and understood languages in the research area; Krio and Themne. The researcher ensures that he administered the questionnaires to the respondents in time. Therefore, they had ample time to complete the questionnaires. Financial support was solicited from friends and relatives for the printing, photocopying of questionnaires and to meet transportation cost during the research.

Recommendations

Recommendation from Findings
Even though the youth have a variety of skills, they acquired from the institution, yet there are some challenges faced by the institution and could pose serious problems if not tackled.

Conclusively, a total of 51.6% of the youth sampled (both graduated and currently enrolled) maintained that regular monitoring of training should be done and adequate modern learning material should be provided. 45% of graduated youth accepted the fact that regular monitoring of training and learning materials should be provided. 6.6% of currently enrolled youth supported the idea. Equally, a total of 26.6% of youth recorded that essential training materials should be supplied to the students and the institutions. 5% youth that has graduated confirmed this and 21.6% currently enrolled youth subscribe to this view.

However, the study discovered challenges faced by youth at SLOIC in Makeni in ensuring quality delivery of training service and these challenges should not be treated with levity because they have the potential of wrecking the work of SLOIC in Makeni. It is rational, therefore that policymakers pay attention to the following recommendations.

 

Monitor, all training materials and equipment supplied at SLOIC
The government and development partners should make it a policy priority to monitor all equipment and materials provided to the SLOIC in Makeni to ensure that they are available and adequate for the youth for effective and efficient training.

 

Encourage school leavers to enrol at SLOIC for sustainable livelihood skills training
It is crucial for the government to make SLOICs attractive to youth who have dropped out of schools to earn employable skills to curtail idleness that could lead to crimes and drug abuse.


Intensify the use of English Language as the primary medium of communication

The is essential for the youth who enrol at SLOIC. The teachers/instructors should make it a point of duty to use English as the primary communication tool in the classroom and laboratories as this help produce youth who can better express themselves in public relation and transfer of knowledge to other youth in the same domain. Comprehensive training programs at technical and vocational institutions that combine in-class employability and life skills lessons with the hands-on task. Putting the theory to practice are needed.

 

Recommendation for Further Studies

In other to continue to improve on the body of knowledge in technical vocational education in the context of Sierra Leone, further studies should be conducted. The researcher recommends further studies in the Economics of Vocational Education, Social Status of Vocational Education and Regional and International Dimensions of Vocational Education. To ensure that data is available for comparative analysis and enhance the design of a holistic and sustainable technical vocational framework that is compatible both at national, regional and international levels. It will help produce human capital that is compatible with both the domestic and international labour market. This study will as well enhance the development of a unified national technical vocational education policy and strategy and can be adopted by both public and private institutions in carrying out their training for their clients.

 

Recommendation for Government Policy Change
Prioritise technical and vocational education in the general education policy

The government policy of free quality education must include technical and vocational education as well to allow more youth to gain employable skills. In conclusion, to spur the economy, the state should empower young people to tackle developmental problems facing nations through technical and vocational education. The various universities and institutions of higher learning should advocate and lobby to increase budget allocation for technical and vocational education in the country. The key players should be The Ministry of Education Science and Technology which should spearhead the allocation of more funds for technical and vocational education in Sierra Leone.

Provide incentives in the form of a government grant in aid for youth to enrol at SLOIC

This important for the government to make sure youth who cannot afford to foot the training bills of their causes should be automatically be qualified for the government grant in aid once enrolled at the SLOIC. This will serve as a compelling incentive for youth to acquire skills. SLOIC exist to solve the skill-deficit problem by providing necessary training in marketable skills to those in need. Technical Vocational Education Skills are imperative for poverty reduction, economic recovery, and sustainable development. In this regard, young people learning marketable and relevant skills in high demand and meets the need of school dropouts and unemployed youths. Therefore, they should be provided with a toolkit to help them start their businesses increasing their chance of financial success. Institutions should be well equipped with modern training equipment for the hands-on task to promote mastering of skills and improve performance and productivity in their field of specialisation.

 

 

 

Implications

The study brings out the contribution of technical and vocational education on youth development. It is indicative that70% of the youth interviewed, the currently enrolled and graduated strongly believed that technical and vocational education would enhance issues such as skills development, self-employment and self-reliance. It is in line with Igweh (2008) and Bassey (2009) as stated above. It is no doubt that youth overwhelmingly agreed to this and this has indeed helped reduced incidences of crimes within the Makeni municipality as it is highly unlikely for youth who have acquired skills and employed to commit crimes and engage in substance abuse. Igweh (2008), in his opinion, affirmed that well-trained artisans, craftsmen, technicians and technologists would fit well in small scale enterprises, industries, colleges and universities. It will result in less dependence on foreign technical personnel in our cottages, primary industries and production capacity increased, and import duties decreased, leading to national development.

 

It is empirically logical to conclude that technical and vocational education has a significant impact on youth development in Bombali, as youth who studied different skills at the Sierra Leone Opportunities Industrialization Center (SLOIC-Makeni) benefitted immensely through gainful employment. The justification is analysed (Chapter 4), which highlighted an indication that youth went through SLOIC, learnt the skills they adored most and got the positive impact of these skills, when youth are provided with the right skills at technical and vocational centres the country benefits immensely because this has the potential of inducing socio-economic development in the country.

 

According to (Cantor, 2000), countries that invest in a sound technical and vocational system will undoubtedly develop the middle-level workforce as in the case of Japan’s success in developing an audio technical and vocational system after the second world war. A nation that includes in its educational policy a comprehensive plan for the development of the technical and vocational system has the potential of affording its young people demand-oriented skills that are employable and self-employable.

It is inconsonant with the scholarly work of Spencer (2009), who stated that skills that are demand-driven and employable should be the focus of technical and vocational institutions to attract the youth of a country. The sad reality is that technical and vocational education in Sierra has not been laudable to reflect the facts of the gap that exists in the middle-level workforce. Successive governments have not been able to invest in this direction seriously and as such a host of problems have culminated. In the study of Gabriel B, (2014), the educational system of Sierra Leone is quite faulty to honestly invest in the development of technical and vocational educational system because everybody is clamouring to acquire university education, and those who have technical and vocational qualifications are seen as "drop-outs" from the perspective of the average Sierra Leonean. The reality is that not everyone needs a university education and as long as the individual has demonstrated skills that are vital to the socio-economic development of the country. It is pertinent to note that youth constitute a significant fraction of the country's population and it is sad that most of this youth are neither gainfully employed nor have skills that will make them responsible, citizens.

The consequences of this are invariably catastrophic especially when youth engage in anti-social activities such as crimes and drug/substance abuse. This confirms the findings of Ishiel, (2010), who postulates that unemployment of youth has devastating impacts in not only on their living conditions but also in the future because the direct result will be youth engaging in drugs and organised crimes which has any effect on the state and the citizenry.

 

The good news is that most youth also want to live in dignified lives as responsible citizens to contribute to national development. This is achievable by providing them with the requisite skills through technical and vocational training to make them not only competitive in the job market but also self-reliant and independent of mitigating the effect of crimes and substance abuse.

A report by UNDP (2011), underscored that even though unemployment has seen as a global trend, Sierra Leone has failed over the years to invest in technical and vocational education to provide the much-needed skills to its youth to reduce the youth dependency theory on the government to make them self-reliant and self-employed. Because of lack of employable skills in the country, youth in Sierra Leone have resorted to converging on ghettos and other social gatherings such as “Ataya Bases” to discuss long and fruitless issues, and some are used as instruments of crime and drug abuse to perpetrate mayhem on behalf of politicians. Those youth who graduate with technical and vocational qualifications have a defined future for themselves, their families and the country as a whole. The skills they acquired at SLOIC and other youth training centres have rendered them fit for purpose in the job market, and this should not be underrated. Sierra Leone like other developing countries must see this as a catalyst for sustainable development and a panacea for youth crimes and drugs.

 

The study discovered that male youth representing 58.3%, of the youth population surveyed composed of the majority. The female youth constituted 41.7 % of the total population. This discovery is skew to the fact that Male youth seemed to be more attracted to acquiring skills like electrical installation, woodwork, auto-mechanic, to make a decent living. The female youth are more attracted to acquiring skills like catering, hairdressing and another beautification training. This is no surprise as most of this female youth can be found working in foods centres within Makeni and its peripheries. This finding can be associated with the results of Peter T, (2012), he said that skills development through technical and vocational education are vital not just to respond to labour market needs, but a tool for social empowerment for the youth, especially women and disadvantaged segments.

The study also found out that before enrolling at SLOIC, 46.7% of the youth engaged in commercial motorbike riding (Okada). This finding proved that youth in the country have the desire to acquire skills and become employable and self-employed, the lack of motivation and support has prevented this youth from tapping to the opportunities inherent in technical and vocational training. This is the reason why those who want to remain somewhat focused chose to ride okadas as a waiting place for opportunities to present themselves. The formal education cannot accommodate most of this youth to acquire college and university degrees, so the only place of solace for them is to enrol at SLOIC for a guaranteed future. Bause, (2009) found out that youth who leave their former engagements to register for life skills are development-oriented because these life skills are a comprehensive set of universal cognitive and non-cognitive skills and abilities, connecting behaviour, attitudes, and knowledge, which youth can develop and retain throughout their lives.

 

With these skills, young people’s well-being to develop into active and productive members of their communities is achieved. The education level of the youth, both current and graduated youth was also an interesting finding of the research. It was discovered that 51.6% of the two youth categories interviewed had attained some secondary education, which means that this percentage of youth could not complete secondary school education and that did not deter them from seeking knowledge, mainly technical and vocational education to impact themselves.

What was also discovered from the study was the fact that 53.3%. Of the total population of the youth interviewed said their motivation to enrol at SLOIC was to get skills and become self-employed. This is an essential finding of the study giving the fact that one of the objectives of the study is to see how technical and vocational education impact youth development.

 

This is related to the findings of Malcolm et al, (2009), who found that having an inclusive training programs at technical and vocational institutions that combine in-class employability and life skills lessons with hands-on practical experience “have higher rates of success, with success defined as improving the probability of obtaining employment and/or higher earnings of self-employment.

This is important for the youth at SLOIC, and there is a spate of optimism among youth that skills acquired from the institution will lead to having jobs or establish their businesses. This finding is also connected to the youth that has graduated in which 40.0% of them said the same thing echoed by the currently enrolled youth at SLOIC. The research discovered that jobs enjoyed by the graduated youth have a direct correlation with the skills acquired at SLOIC. From the total respondents, 75.0% confirmed that indeed their current positions are related to what they did at the institution. Looking at Makeni and its environs, most employment opportunities are targeting youth with skills especially those jobs that require technical expertise and those youth have found themselves in these places. One of the leading roles is electrical installation jobs mostly gained by male youths and catering jobs enjoyed by female youth. Morris (2010), confirmed this finding that technical and vocational institutions are perfect substitutes to general education which should be providing technical and Vocational training that is needed in the job market. While Spencer (2009) argues that, skills that are employable and demand-driven should be the focus of technical and vocational institutions for the development of the recipients who are mostly youth.

Another interesting finding was that 45.0% of the total population of graduated youth interviewed said a significant benefit of the skills they have acquired is that they are now creating jobs instead of seeking positions. This is pertinent to the issue of self-employment. Youth have now realised the importance of skills development leading to self-employment and because of this graduate from SLOIC can now boast of having their businesses. It is therefore empirical to state that indeed the skills received by the youth are beneficial to them and has contributed in no small measure to the development of their wellbeing. Youth have ventured into establishing their enterprises from the skills acquired, and this has helped them create jobs to employ others rather than looking for jobs all the time. Taking care of their families from the income they get from the job they do is another milestone justifying the impact technical and vocational education had on the graduated youth. According to the findings of Igweh (2008) when somebody acquires skills from technical and vocational training, such a person can establish his or her own business and even employ others. Thus, a self-reliance situation will ensue. He also discovers that self-reliance “leads to national development”.

 

From the findings of Bassey (2009), self-reliance as that which pre-supposes the attainment and autonomy without unnecessarily resorting to begging or browning. He emphasized that, “a self-reliant individual is one that achieves steady supply of his/her needs, one that diversifies his resources to reduce dependency on others for assistance” Thus, self-reliance emphasizes growth and development in the life of a youth politically, socially and economically that frees the youth from the commission of crimes and other social vices. From the study, employed youth have a steady flow of monthly income with 56.7% of the total population of sampled enjoyed a monthly income of Le 2,000,000,00- Le 3,000,000.00. This has helped them developed economically and also improve their families, and this is a significant impact of technical and vocational education. When youth have a steady flow of incomes from the skills, they have acquired the probability of them resorting to crimes and drug abuse is minimal, and the only problem in Sierra Leone is that the opportunities for this to happen are almost non-existent.

 

This has resulted in an overabundance of social problems in which the government has to spend big to enforce social order. If only youth are given the opportunity to discover their talents and learn skills that are demand-oriented, issues such as crimes and drugs would be drastically curtailed. Even though the study revealed positive impact of technical and vocational education on youth development yet, there are challenges inherent at SLOIC in which 56% of the youth especially the currently enrolled ones said there are inadequate learning materials and equipment. This is a severe impediment to the service delivery at the institution. Technical and vocational educations is a practical-oriented style of training; therefore, the availability of materials and equipment is key to the development of the institution. This study logically validated other reviews that there is an impact of technical and vocational education on youth development with specific reference to Makeni SLOIC.

 

If only the government can synchronise its educational agenda to favour the development of technical and vocational training, youth in the country could be viable contributors to the socio-economic development of the nation. In this vein, technical and vocational institutions with the help of government, must endeavour to provide those skills that are not only attractive to the youth but also of industrial so that when the youth graduate, they will fit in squarely to the equation. It is evident that the impact of Technical and vocational education on youth development research has flooded recent literature, but few have dedicated to the effects of technical and vocational education in the Sierra Leone perspective. The study has established that even though there are challenges concerning the inadequate supply of equipment, yet there is a positive impact of technical and vocational education on the development of youth in Makeni.

Renowned researchers have established the relationship between technical and vocational education and youth development. Technical and vocational training according to Frank J. (2013), said it involves the learning of practical skills, attitude, knowledge relating to occupations in various sectors of economy and self-employment. Technical and vocational education is further understood to be an integral part of general knowledge; a means of preparing for occupational filed and active participation in the world of work; an aspect of lifelong learning and preparation for responsible citizenship; an instrument for promoting environmentally sound sustainable development; and a platform for poverty alleviation.

In Sierra Leone, much work on the impact of technical and vocational education on youth development has not been adequately done to capture in-depth literature to allow students and researchers to delve into the country’s technical and vocational system. Many studies have focused on policy formulation and implementation of youth programmes as evidenced in a publication by GTZ “Diagnostic Study of the TVET Sector in Sierra Leone”, (2018). The report gave a general assessment of the technical and vocational system in the country with policy actions and options on how to invest and develop the technical and vocational education sector in the country. What the report recommended has been partially implemented but not to the fullest because we still have problems in our technical and vocational education sector. It is therefore practical to assert the role of technical and vocational education should not be underestimated.

Conclusion

In their study, Njoku & Ihugba (2011), shows that there is increased unemployment in Sierra Leone which has resulted to social vices, human capacity underutilised, poverty increased, social isolation and weak purchasing power. The literature reviewed shows that there is a failure to invest in technical vocational education for youth self-employment, and self-reliance and consequently leading to social, economic and psychological adverse effects, (Emeka, 2011). The poor state of technical and vocational educational development in most African countries has made many youth resorts to crimes ranging from pick-pocketing to armed robbery (Scot, 2012). Technical vocational education is viewed as education for those who are not brilliant and who cannot pursue high education at the university level. It has been held with low esteem, neglected and depressed investment by past governments (GoSL 2012). Also, youth serve as valuable assets to the socio-economic development of countries, especially developing countries (UNDP, 2010). If Sierra Leone is to achieve Goal 4 of the Sustainable Development Goals which stated that by 2030 globally nations should; Ensure Inclusively and Equitable Quality Education and Promote Lifelong Learning Opportunities for All. With specific reference to target 4.4 of the (SDGs) that ‘by 2030, there should be an increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship’ (UNDP, 2015).

This study has clearly shown that technical vocational education contributes to youth development in the Bombali district. The figures and descriptive information have provided a comprehensive presentation that technical vocational training result to self-reliance, self-employment, crime rate reduction and mitigate substance abuse. The study as well revealed that SLOIC technical vocational training programmes contribute to positive changes in the lives of youth who go through their trainings. This can be seen, as most youth interviewed agreed that technical vocational education has being helpful to them in securing sustainable employment that allows them realise income for self-sustenance. There is a clear demonstration that SLOIC is contributing to human capital development in the Bombali district. It is the researcher's opinion that other technical vocational educational institutions are making a similar contribution in the communities they are operating in Sierra Leone. This warrant the need for a valid readily available sustainable technical vocational training framework model for workforce capacity building and skills training in other deprived communities in Sierra Leone. Therefore, the government and its development partners should consider reforming technical vocational education in the country and mainstream it in the general education system. This will result in economic growth and economic development, which in turn increase human capital and poverty reduction.

The existing gap in the literature of this study is that studies that focus on youth development through technical and vocational education in the context of Sierra Leone and some developing countries in Africa are deficient. The study was conducted to fill this gap by providing empirical confirmation to authenticate the fact that indeed technical and vocational education has a role to play in youth development in the country.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

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Adebayo (2013), The historical background of entrepreneurial development in Nigerian: its gains, short comings and need. Journal of Emerging trend in economic and management science. 3.(3):78-86

Adewale, O.S., Gany, H.I., Sidek, H.M., (2014). Technical and Vocational Education Now and Beyond in Africa: An implication for Relevance, Growth and Development in the Era of Globalization: Faculty of Major Languages Studies University Sains. Islam, Malysia. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 19, Issue 4, pp 28-33

Ajaegbu, (2012), Issues of development and the effect of technical and vocational education on youth progress and development

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Alhassan, Usman. S. and Tyabo, A. (2013). Revitalizing Technical and Vocational Education (TVET) for Youth Empowerment and Sustainable Development: School of Technical Education, Niger State College of Education, Minna-Nigeria. Journal of Education and Social Research Vol. 3.

Amedu, O.S. (2013). Vocational and Technical Education: A Tool for Sustainable Development in Nigeria: Department of Vocational Education, (Home Economic), Delta State University, Abraka. Journal of Education and Practice. Vol. 4, No. 25, 2013

Bassey (2009), Recreating primary education for patriotism and self-reliant: Implication for teacher education. Journal of qualitative education 5(1)7-11

Bauns, (2009), Analysing the effect of technical and vocational education on youths in Africa.

Bause, (2009), An analysis of the impact of technical and vocational education on the livelihood of youths

Boateng, (2012), Restructuring Vocational and Technical Education in Ghana: The Role of Leadership Development. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2, 1-17

Brainma (2012), Development Indicators for Youths through Technical and Vocational Education

Chinwe (2008), Understanding the spiral effects of technical and vocational education.

Emeka, (2011), Youth Unemployment and Implication for Stability Democracy in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 13 (1), 358-373.

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Emmanuel A.RG. (2019), Advocacy Strategy: Mankind’s Activities for Development and Accreditation Movement

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Gabriel B, (2014). Technical and vocational education- A key to Sierra Leone development

Government of Sierra Leone (2014). The Revised National Youth Policy: Ministry of Youth Affairs

Government of Sierra Leone (2014), National Youth Programme, Ministry of Youth Affaire Sierra Leone

Government of Sierra Leone (2013). Agenda for Prosperity pp 61-63: Ministry of Finance and Economic Development

Government of Sierra Leone, (2012). Sierra Leone Youth Report. National Youth Commission & Ministry of Youth Employment and Sport, 2012

Ifeanacho (2013), Secondary school entrepreneurship Education: An imperative for entrepreneurship development, Job creation, wealth generation and global competition. International Journal of education research. 13 (1), 47-64

Ifeanacho (2013), Secondary school entrepreneurship Education: An imperative for entrepreneurship development, Job creation, wealth generation and global competition. International Journal of education research. 13 (1), 47-64

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Appendix A

RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE

AN EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION ON YOUTH DEVELOPMENT IN BOMBALI DISTRICT: A CASE STUDY OF THE SIERRA LEONE OPPORTUNITIES INDUSTRIALIZATION CENTER (SLOIC)

Survey Questionnaire

 

 

 

Respondent’s code………………………………

 

 

Location: 1: Urban 2: 2 Peri- Urban 3: Rural

District: Bombali Chiefdom: Bombali Shebora

Interviewer’s name……………………………….......................................................

Time of Interview: start-----------------------------End-----------------------------

 

 

Instructions: For each question with boxes provided, please circle or tick against the answer(s); otherwise, please follow the instructions given to answer the other questions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION 1

 

Male

1

Female

2

Demographic Profile of respondents

DP1. What is your gender?

 

 

DP2. What is your primary occupation?

Student

Factory Worker

Casual worker

Petty Trader

Civil Servant

Freelance worker

Others

Specify-----------

1

2

3

4

5

6

8

 

                         

 

DP3. What is your age?

15-21

1

21-25

2

25-30

3

35-40

4

40-45

5

45-50

6

50-55

7

>55

8

 

DP4. What is your educational Status?

 

 

Primary

Some Primary

Secondary

Tech. Voc. Education

Others (Specify----------------------------

1

2

3

4

5

 

DP5. What is your marital status? 1). Married 2. Single 3. Divorced 4. Widowed 5. separated

 

DP6. How many children do you have?

0

1

2

3

4

5

>5

 

SECTION 2

Respondents/Students currently studying in their final year

RCS 7. What you were doing before enrolment in this institution

1. Riding Bike(Okada)

2.  Going to school

3.  Just on the street hustling

4.  Engaged in anti-social activities

  1.  Nothing

6. Others(specify)……………………………………………………

RCS 8. What is your area of technical and vocational study?

Catering

Tailoring

Woodwork

Carpentry

Electrical Installation

Welding

Plumbing

Others-----------------

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

 

RCS 9. Do you think this education will help you find a decent job after graduation?

1.Yes  2. No 

If Yes, please probe to Explain why? (If no, please skip to RCS11)

..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

RCS 10. Do you face any challenges since enrolled in this institution? 1.Yes  2. No 

(If Yes please continue to RCS 12: If No Skip to RCS 13)

RCS 12. What are the major challenges that you face in your school or for being enrolled in a Technical and Vocational Institution? Select as many as you can from the following.

1. Inadequate classroom space

2.  Inadequate learning materials and equipment

3.  No teachers or Instructors

4. cannot pay my fees

5. No internet connection in school

6.Others(Specify)……………………………………………………………

RCS 11. Do you prefer Formal schooling to Vocational and Technical Institutions?

1.Yes  2. No 

If Yes, please probe to Explain why? (If no, please skip to RCS14)

.......................................................................................................................................

RCS.12 Are you satisfied with this educational system?

Very much Satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Strongly Dissatisfied

Dissatisfied

1

2

3

4

5

RCS 13. With Technical and Vocational Education Issues like skills, self-employment and self-reliance on part of the student will be enhanced.

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

1

2

3

4

5

 

RCS14. Do you think with technical and vocational education issues like crime and drug/substance abuse will be drastically reduced? 1.Yes  2. No 

If Yes, please probe to Explain why? (If no, please skip to RCS17)

.......................................................................................................................................

RCS 15. What do you think should be done to improve the technical and vocational educational system in Sierra Leone and in Makeni in Particular?......................................................................................................................

SECTION 3

Class of 2016-2017 Graduated respondents/Students

GRS16. When did you graduate?

1 year ago

2 years ago

3 years ago

4 years ago

More than 4 years ago

 

1

2

3

4

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

GRS 17. What technical specialty did you graduate in?

Catering

Tailoring

Woodwork

Carpentry

Electrical Installation

Welding

Plumbing

Others-----------------

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

 

GRS18. Are you currently employed? 1. Yes  2. No

(If Yes continue to GRS21-26: If No skip to GRS 27)

GRS19. How long did it take you to find a job after graduation?

1. Less than 6 months 2.  Between 6 months and 1 year 3.  Between 1 year and 2 years 4.  More than 2 years.

GRS 20. Where do you work?

...........................................................................................................

GRS 21. How much do you earn monthly?

1. Less than Le1,000,000 2. Le1,000,000 –Le2,000,000 3. Le 2,000,000-Le3,000,000

4. Le3,000,000-Le4,000,000 5.Le4,000,000-Le5,000,00 6.More than Le5,000,000

GRS 22. Did your income increase since you started working?

Increased

Remained the same

Decreased

Worse

1

2

3

4

 

 

 

GRS 23. Apart from the job do you have any other source(s) of income?

1). Yes 2). No (if yes please continue to GRS 26

 

GRS. 24 what other source(s) of income does your household have? (Choose all that applies)

House renting

Petty trading

Government assistance

remittances

Others Specify----------

 

1

2

3

4

5

 

 

GRS 25. Is your current job directly related to what you studied in the Technical and Vocational Institution? 1. Yes 2. No 

If No, please probe to Explain why? (If yes, please skip to GRS28-33)

GRS 26. What are your views on Technical and vocational education in Sierra Leone

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

GRS 27. Ever since you graduated what changes have you noticed as a result of completing a technical and vocational education?

(Please choose all that apply)

Improved skill sets

Facilitated self-employment

I am now self-reliant

Crime rates reduced drastically

Abuse of drugs and other substances is completely reduced

 

1

2

3

4

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GRS.28 Are you satisfied with your current situation?

Very much Satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Strongly Dissatisfied

Dissatisfied

1

2

3

4

5

 

Please probe and ask “WHY”if strongly dissatisfied and Dissatisfied…………

GRS 29. Technical and vocational education has changed my life completely.

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

1

2

3

4

5

 

 

 

 

Please probe and ask “WHY” if strongly disagree and Disagree……….

GRS 30. What do you think should be done to encourage youths to engage in Technical and Vocational education in the country and in Makeni in Particular?......................................................................................................................

GRS 31. Do you think issues like crime rate and substance abuse have reduced because youths have engaged into meaningful things as a result of the technical and vocational education they received?

1. Yes 2. No 

please probe and ask why? for any of the response given in GRS 31.

 

Appendix B

CONSENT FORM

I am Paul Abu Kargbo a student at the University of Makeni reading for a Master of Arts degree in Sustainable Development. As a student researcher, I am doing a study on the above-named topic, taking SLOIC in Makeni as a case. As a requirement for the award of the degree, a thesis component of my study must be completed including an empirical research on the topic above, information analysed and findings communicated.

Please note that only information regarding this survey will be communicated and your participation in this research will help me to gather reliable data for the sole purpose of academic requirement. Your participation is entirely voluntary and you remain anonymous ensuring you of the strictest confidentiality of your responses. Thank you for coming. If you have any queries regarding this research feel free to contact me through the following:

Contact Information: +23277839878

Email: paulakargbo.ydcsl.gmail.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix C

REQUEST LETTER FOR ASSISTANT TO STUDENT

To:……………………………..

…………………………………..

………………………………….

 

Mr. Paul Abu Kargbo ID 1392 is a registered student in the Post graduate program in Sustainable Development University of Makeni and has been instructed to conduct a research in partial fulfilment of the award of a Masters Degree.

The topic is:

Evaluating the impact of Technical Vocational Education on youth Development. Sierra Leone Opportunity and Industrialisation Centre (SLOIC) Makeni.

I would be grateful if you could render him the assistant required to collect the appropriate data for the research.

Many thanks in advance for giving him all the support to complete this task.

Prof. Bob Conteh

……………………….

Dean, School of Postgraduate Studies

University of Makeni (UNIMAK)

Tel.+232-76-710-809

Contehbob88@hotmail.com

Cc: File